A Catalogue of Galactic Supernova Remnants: Documentation
2019 June version
D. A. Green
19 J. J. Thomson Avenue
Cambridge CB3 0HE
Contents of this document.
This catalogue of Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) is an updated
version of those presented in detail in Green (1984, 1988) and in
summary form in Green (1991, 1996, 2004, 2009, 2014) – hereafter
Versions I, II, III, IV, V, VI and VII respectively – and on the Web,
in versions of 1995 July, 1996 August, 1998 September, 2000 August, 2001
December, 2004 January, 2006 April, 2009 March and 2017 June. (Version
IV, although published in 1996, was produced in 1993, and a detailed
version of this was made available on the Web in 1993 November). The
summary data from the 2001 December version of the catalogue was also
published as an Appendix in Stephenson & Green (2002).
- The summary listings of all 294 SNRs.
- The detailed listings of all 294 SNRs.
- A list of other names for Galactic
- The abbreviations for journals/telescopes
used in the detailed listings.
- A frames interface to the catalogue.
- How to get a paper version of the
- A feedback comment form.
This, the 2019 June version of the catalogue contains 294 SNRs (which is
one less than in the previous version; four remnants have been added,
and five objects removed), with over three thousand references in the
detailed listings, plus notes on many possible or probable remnants. For
each remnant in the catalogue the following parameters are given.
In the detailed listings, for each remnant, notes on a
variety of topics are given. First, it is noted if other Galactic
coordinates have at times been used to label it (usually before good
observations have revealed the full extent of the object), if the SNR is
thought to be the remnant of a historical SN, or if the nature of the
source as an SNR has been questioned (in which case an appropriate
reference is usually given later in the entry). Brief descriptions of
the remnant from the available radio, optical and X-ray observations as
applicable are then given, together with notes on available distance
determinations, and any point sources or pulsars in or near the object
(although they may not necessarily be related to the remnant). Finally,
appropriate published references to observations are given for each
remnant, complete with journal, volume, page, and a short description of
what information each paper contains (for radio observations these
include the telescopes used, the observing frequencies and resolutions,
together with any flux density determinations). These references are
not complete, but cover representative and recent observations of
the remnant – up to the end of 2018 in this version of the catalogue –
and they should themselves include references to earlier work.
- Galactic Coordinates of the remnant. These are
quoted to a tenth of a degree, as is conventional. In this catalogue
additional leading zeros are not used. These are generally taken from
the Galactic coordinate based name used for the remnant in the
literature. It should be noted that when these names were first defined,
they may not follow the IAU
that coordinates should be truncated, not rounded to construct such names.
- Other Names that are commonly used for the
remnant. Note that these are given in parentheses if the remnant is only
a part of the source. For some well known remnants – e.g.
G184.6−5.8 (=Crab nebula) – not all common names are given.
- Right Ascension and Declination of J2000.0
equatorial coordinates the source centroid, which an accuracy of the
quoted values depends on the size of the remnant. For small remnants
they are to the nearest few seconds of time and the nearest minute of
arc respectively, whereas for larger remnants they are rounded to
coarser values, but are in every case sufficient to specify a point
within the boundary of the remnant. These coordinates are usually
deduced from radio images rather than from X-ray or optical
- Angular Size of the remnant, in arcminutes. This
is usually taken from the highest resolution radio image available. The
boundary of most remnants approximates reasonably well to a either
circle or to an ellipse. A single value is quoted for the angular size
of the more nearly circular remnants, which is the diameter of a circle
with an area equal to that of the remnant. For more elongated remnants
the product of two values is given, which are the major and minor
diameters of the remnant boundary modelled as an ellipse. In a small
number of cases an ellipse is not a good description of the boundary of
the object (which will be noted in the description of the object given
in its catalogue entry), although an angular size is still quoted for
information. For `filled-centre' type remnants (see below), the size
quoted is for the largest extent of the observed emission, not, as at
times has been used by others, the half-width of the centrally
- Flux Density of the remnant at a frequency of
1 GHz, in jansky. This is not a measured value, but is instead
derived from the observed radio spectrum of the source. The frequency of
1 GHz is chosen because flux density measurements are usually available
at both higher and lower frequencies. Some young remnants – notably
G111.7−2.1 (=Cassiopeia A) and G184.6−5.8 (=Crab
Nebula), but also G130.7+3.1 (=3C58) and G120.1+1.4
(=Tycho) – show secular variations in their radio flux density. In
this revision of the catalogue the 1-GHz flux densities for
G111.7−2.1 and G184.6−5.8 have been taken from Perley &
Butler (2017), for an epoch of 2016. Results from the primary literature
should be used for any detailed quantitative studies of the radio
spectra of these and other remnants.
- Spectral Index of the integrated radio emission
from the remnant,
α (here defined in the sense, S ∝
ν−α, where S is the
flux density at a frequency ν),
either a value that is quoted in the literature, or one deduced from the
available integrated flux densities of the remnant. For several SNRs a simple
power law is not adequate to describe their radio spectra, either because there
is evidence that the integrated spectrum is curved or the spectral index varies
across the face of the remnant. In these cases the spectral index is given as
`varies' (refer to the description of the remnant and appropriate references in
the detailed catalogue entry for more information). In some cases, for example
where the remnant is highly confused with thermal emission, the spectral index
is given as `?' since no value can be deduced with any confidence.
- Type of the SNR: `S' or `F' if the remnant shows
a `shell' or `filled-centre' structure, or `C' if it shows `composite'
(or `combination') radio structure, with a combination of shell and
filled-centre characteristics. If there is some uncertainty, the type is
given as `S?', `F?' or `C?', and as `?' in several cases where an
object is conventionally regarded as an SNR even though its nature is
poorly known or it is not well-understood. Until recently only a few
remnants were classified as composite remnants, as available
observations were only able to identify the more obvious pulsar-powered,
flatter radio spectrum filled-centre components within shells. However,
in recent years improved observations – particularly in X-rays with the
Chandra satellite – have identified many faint, pulsar powered nebulae
in what until then had been identified as pure shell remnants. (Note:
the term `composite' has been used, by some authors, in a different
sense, to describe remnants with radio shell and centrally-brightened
X-ray emission. An alternative term used to describe such remnants is
`mixed morphology', see Rho & Petre 1998.)
The references do not generally include large observational surveys –
of particular interest in this respect are:
the Effelsberg 100-m survey at 2.7 GHz of the Galactic plane 358°
≤ l ≤ 240°, |b| ≤ 5° by Reich et al. (1990) and
Fürst et al. (1990a); reviews of the radio spectra of some SNRs by
Kassim (1989), Kovalenko, Pynzar' & Udal'tsov (1994) and Trushkin
(1998); the Parkes 64-m survey at 2.4 GHz of the Galactic plane
238° < l < 365°, |b| < 5° by Duncan et al.
(1995) and Duncan et al. (1997); the Molonglo Galactic plane survey at
843 MHz of 245° < l < 355°, |b| < 1.°5 by Green
et al. (1999); the survey of 345° < l < 255°, |b| <
5° at 8.35 and 14.35 GHz by Langston et al. (2000); Multi-Array
Galactic Plane Imaging Survey (MAGPIS), see White, Becker & Helfand
(2005) and Helfand et al. (2006); the VLA Galactic Plane Survey, see
Stil et al. (2006);
the survey of HI emission towards SNRs by Koo & Heiles (1991);
surveys of IRAS observations of SNRs and their immediate surroundings by
Arendt (1989) and by Saken, Fesen & Shull (1992); various Spitzer
surveys of inner galaxy (Reach et al. 2006; Carey et al. 2009; Pinheiro
Gonçalves et al. 2011); the catalogue by Fesen & Hurford (1996) of
UV/optical/infra-red lines identified in SNRs;
references to the first Fermi SNR catalogue (Acero et al. 2016) are
included for the 30 `Classified Candidates' and 14 `Marginally
Classified Candidates' remnants listed in Table 1, but not for the other
remnants with non-detection; the HESS high energy γ-ray
Galactic plane survey (Abdalla et al. 2018a).
Ferrand & Safi-Harb (2012), present a census of X-/γ-ray
observations of Galactic SNRs and pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe),
updates of which are available
The catalogue is available as a summary listing
of the parameters for each remnant, and as
detailed listings (with references) for each
object. Also see the list of
other names used for these SNRs, and
the list of abbreviations for journals,
proceedings and telescopes used in the detailed listings.
The following objects, which were listed in Version I of the
catalogue were removed because they were no longer thought to be
remnants, or were poorly observed (see Version II for references and
further details): G2.4+1.4 (see also Gray 1994a; Goss & Lozinskaya
1995; Polcaro et al. 1995), G41.9−4.1 (=CTB 73, PKS 1920+06),
G47.6+6.1 (=CTB 63), G53.9+0.3 (part of HC40), G93.4+1.8
(=NRAO 655), G123.2+2.9, G194.7+0.4 (the Origem Loop, but see
below for more recent work), G287.8−0.5 (see below), G322.3−1.2
(=Kes 24) and G343.0−6.0 (but note that G343.0−6.0 was
subsequently reinstated into the catalogue, due to improved
observations, see below). Note that subsequently Leahy, Tian & Wang
(2008) again proposed that a large (about 0.°5) radio shell,
G53.9+0.2, as a possible old SNR. As noted above, this feature was
included, as G53.9+0.3 (part of HC40), in Version I of the catalogue,
but was subsequently removed, following the discussions of Caswell
(1985) who concluded is was a thermal source (see also Velusamy, Goss &
Arnal 1986; Zychová & Ehlerová 2016; Driessen et al. 2018).
G358.4−1.9, which was listed in Version IV of the catalogue, was
removed, as following the discussion of Gray (1994a), as it is not clear
that this is a SNR. G240.9−0.9, G299.0+0.2 and G328.0+0.3, which
were listed in 1995 July version of the catalogue, were removed from the
1996 August version, following the improved observations of Duncan
et al. (1996) and Whiteoak & Green (1996). For the 1998 September
revision of the catalogue G350.0−1.8 was incorporated into
G350.0−2.0, and G337.0−0.1 refers to a smaller remnant
than that previously catalogued with the same name. G112.0+1.2,
G117.4+5.0, G152.2−1.2 and G211.7−1.1 – which were reported as
SNRs by Bonsignori-Facondi & Tomasi (1979) – were removed from the
2001 December version of the catalogue, as the first three of these are
not confirmed as SNRs from the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey (Roland
Kothes, private communication). G10.0−0.3, which was regarded as a
remnant – possibly associated with a soft-gamma repeater – was removed
from the 2004 January version of the catalogue, as it is now thought to
be radio nebula powered by a stellar wind (see Gaensler et al. 2001,
Corbel & Eikenberry 2004, and references therein). G166.2+2.5 (=OA
184) was removed from the 2006 April version of the catalogue, as it was
identified as an HII region by Foster et al. (2006). G84.9+0.5 was
removed from Version VI of the catalogue, as it was identified as an
HII region by Foster et al. (2007; see also Kothes et al. 2006).
G16.8−1.1 was removed from the Version VII version of the catalogue
(Sun et al. 2011; Stupar & Parker 2011). G192.8−1.1 was removed from
the 2017 June version of the catalogue, as Gao et al. (2011) had shown
this is not a SNR (Kang, Koo & Byun 2014). It was erroneously not
removed in the Version VII version of the catalogue.
In this version of the catalogue five entries have been removed. From
THOR and VGPS radio and IR survey observations Anderson et al. (2017)
conclude that six entries in Version VII of the catalogue are not SNRs,
but have been confused with HII regions. Five of these (G20.4+0.1,
G21.5−0.1, G23.6+0.3, G59.8+1.2 and G65.8−0.5) have been removed
from this version of the catalogue. The other source is
G54.1+0.3, which used to be in the catalogue as a filled-centre
remnant, as it shows a centrally brightened morphology in radio and
X-ray observations, and contains a pulsar. It was reclassified as
somewhat larger possible composite remnant when a larger, faint X-ray
emission was identified, from which radio emission, with polarised loops
was subsequently found. G54.1+0.3 is retained in this version of
the catalogue as a possible composite remnant because of its X-ray and
polarised radio emission, although it may be an isolated PWN.
The following objects, which have been reported as SNRs, but have not
been included in any of the versions of the SNR catalogue, have
subsequently been shown not to be SNRs.
Also see further comments in Section 2.3, when there is
evidence that some other objects which have been proposed SNRs are not
- G70.7+1.2, which was reported as a SNR by Reich
et al. (1985), but this has not been confirmed by later observations
(see Green 1986; de Muizon et al. 1988; Becker & Fesen 1988; Bally
et al. 1989; Phillips, Onello & Kulkarni 1993; Onello et al. 1995;
Cameron & Kulkarni 2007).
- G81.6+1.0 a possible SNR in W75 reported by
Ward-Thompson & Robson (1991). From the published data (see the
observations in Wendker, Higgs & Landecker 1991) it was noted in
Version IV of the catalogue that this is thermal source not a SNR,
because of its thermal radio spectrum, and high infrared-to-radio
emission (see also the subsequent discussion by Wendker et al. 1993).
- Green & Gull (1984) suggested G227.1+1.0 as a very
young SNR, but subsequent observations (Channan et al. 1986; Green &
Gull 1986) have shown that this is most likely an extragalactic source,
not an SNR.
- A candidate SNR, G274.7−2.8, identified by Helfand &
Channan (1989), has been shown not to be a SNR by Caswell & Stewart
- G159.6−18.5, was suggested as a SN by Pauls &
Schwartz (1989), from IRAS and other observations – see also Fiedler
et al. (1994) – but is probably an II region (see Andersson et al.
2000, Ridge et al. 2006).
- G25.5+0.2, which was reported as a very young SNR by
Cowan et al. (1989), although this identification was not certain (see
White & Becker 1990; Green 1990a; Zijlstra 1991). Sramek et al. (1992)
report the detection of recombination lines from this source (also see
Subrahmanyan et al. 1993). Becklin et al. (1994) identify G25.5+0.2 as
a ring nebula around a luminous blue star. See also Clark, Steele &
Langer (2000), and Phillips & Ramos-Larios (2008) who identified
G25.5+0.2 as a possible symbiotic outflow.
- Several of the possible SNRs listed by Gorham (1990) –
following up SNR candidates suggested by Kassim (1988a) – have been
shown likely not to be SNRs by Gorham, Kulkarni & Prince (1993).
- A possible SNR (G32.1+0.1) reported from optical
spectroscopy by Thompson, Djorgovski & de Carvalho (1991), following up
radio and infrared observations of Jones, Garwood & Dickey (1988),
although this has a thermal radio spectrum, and has been identified as
an ultra-compact HII region (Leto et al. 2009).
- G203.2−12.3, a optical ring about 3 arcmin in
diameter, was reported as a possible SNR by Winkler & Reipurth (1992),
but was shown to be a Herbig–Haro object (HH 311) by Reipurth, Bally &
Devine (1997), see also Rosado, Raga & Arias (1999).
- G104.7+2.8, a possible SNR suggested by Green &
Joncas (1994), which instead appears to be an HII region, based on the
improved observations by Kothes et al. (2006).
- G247.8+4.9 was noted as a possible optical SNR by
Weinberger (1995), see also Zanin & Kerber (2000). However, it is
regarded as a possible or probably planetary nebula (PN) by both Parker
et al. (2006) and Frew, Bojičić & Parker (2013).
- G359.87+0.18 was reported as a possible young SNR
near the Galactic Centre by Yusef-Zadeh, Cotton & Reynolds (1998), but
was shown to be a radio galaxy by Lazio et al. (1999).
- Morris et al. (2006) suggested small remnant observed
by Spitzer, which has subsequently instead been identified as a
likely PN by Fesen & Milisavljevic (2010), see also Mizuno et al.
- An extended region of X-ray emission, near
l=356.°8, b=−1.°7 is reported as a possible SNR by Tomsick
et al. (2009). Subsequently Barrière et al. (2015) identified this as
a galaxy cluster and blazar.
- The TeV γ-ray source MGRO J2019+37 is
discussed by Saha & Bhattcharjee (2014) as either a PWN or SNR. (Note
that declination for the source given by Saha & Bhattcharjee is wrong.)
However, the SNR identification is not supported by observations by Aliu
et al. (2014), who resolve MGRO J2019+37 into two sources, one
associated with G74.9+1.2, and the other with the pulsar
Some entries in the catalogue have been renamed, due
to improved observations revealing a larger true extent for the object
(previously G5.3−1.0 is now G5.4−1.2; G308.7+0.0 is now
incorporated into G308.8−0.1). G337.0−0.1 now refers to a
small (1.5 arcmin) remnant, rather than larger supposed remnant at this
position (see Sarma et al. 1997), and G350.0−2.0 now incorporates
the previously catalogued G350.0−1.8, based on the improved
observations of Gaensler (1998). G106.6+2.9, which was proposes as a
small remnant by Halpern et al. (2001), is incorporated into the larger
catalogued remnant G106.3+2.7.
The following remnants were added to Version II of the catalogue:
G0.9+0.1, G1.9+0.3, G5.9+3.1, G6.4+4.0,
G8.7−0.1, G18.9−1.1, G20.0−0.2,
G27.8+0.6, G30.7+1.0, G31.5−0.6, G36.6−0.7,
G42.8+0.6, G45.7−0.4, G54.1+0.3, G73.9+0.9,
G179.0+2.6, G312.4−0.4, G357.7+0.3 and
The following remnants were added to Version III of the catalogue:
G4.2−3.5, G5.2−2.6, G6.1+1.2, G8.7−5.0,
G13.5+0.2, G15.1−1.6, G16.7+0.1, G17.4−2.3,
G17.8−2.6, G30.7−2.0, G36.6+2.6, G43.9+1.6,
G59.8+1.2, G65.1+0.6, G68.6−1.2, G69.7+1.0,
G279.0+1.1, G284.3−1.8 (=MSH 10−53), G358.4−1.9 and
G359.0−0.9 (although, as noted above, G59.8+1.2 and G358.4−1.9
have subsequently been removed).
The following remnants were added to Version IV of the catalogue:
G59.5+0.1, G67.7+1.8, G84.9+0.5, G156.2+5.7,
G318.9+0.4, G322.5−0.1, G343.1−2.3 and G348.5−0.0
(although, as noted above, G84.9+0.5 was subsequently removed).
The following remnants were added to 1995 July version of the catalogue:
G1.0−0.1, G1.4−0.1, G3.7−0.2, G3.8+0.3,
G28.8+1.5, G76.9+1.0, G272.2−3.2, G341.2+0.9,
G354.1+0.1, G355.6−0.0, G356.3−0.3, G356.3−1.5 and
The following remnants were added to the 1996 August version of the catalogue:
G13.3−1.3, G286.5−1.2, G289.7−0.3, G294.1−0.0,
G299.2−2.9, G299.6−0.5, G301.4−1.0, G308.1−0.7,
G310.6−0.3, G310.8−0.4, G315.9−0.0, G317.3−0.2,
G318.2+0.1, G320.6−1.6, G321.9−1.1, G327.4+1.0,
G329.7+0.4, G342.1+0.9, G343.1−0.7, G345.7−0.2,
G349.2−0.1, G351.7+0.8, G351.9−0.9 and
The following remnants were added to the 1998 September version of the
catalogue: G0.3+0.0, G32.1−0.9, G55.0+0.3,
G63.7+1.1 and G182.4+4.3.
The following remnants were added to the 2000 August version of the catalogue:
G7.0−0.1, G16.2−2.7, G29.6+0.1, G266.2−1.2 and
The following remnants were added to the 2001 December version of the
catalogue: G4.8+6.2, G28.6−0.1, G85.4+0.7,
G85.9−0.6, G106.3+2.7, G292.2−0.5, G343.0−6.0,
G353.9−2.0, G356.2+4.5 and G358.0+3.8.
G312.5−3.0 was added to Version V of the catalogue.
The following remnants were added to the 2006 April version of the
catalogue: G5.5+0.3, G6.1+0.5, G6.5−0.4,
G7.2+0.2, G8.3−0.0, G8.9+0.4, G9.7−0.0,
G9.9−0.8, G10.5−0.0, G11.0−0.0, G11.1−0.7,
G11.1−1.0, G11.1+0.1, G11.8−0.2, G12.2+0.3,
G12.5+0.2, G12.7−0.0, G12.8−0.0, G14.1−0.1,
G14.3+0.1, G15.4+0.1, G16.0−0.5, G16.4−0.5,
G17.0−0.0, G17.4−0.1, G18.1−0.1, G18.6−0.2,
G19.1+0.2, G20.4+0.1, G21.0−0.4, G21.5−0.1,
G32.4+0.1, G96.0+2.0, G113.0+0.2 and
G337.2+0.1 (as noted above, G20.4+0.1 and G21.5−0.1
have subsequently been removed).
The following remnants were added to Version VI of the catalogue:
G83.0−0.3, G108.2−0.6, G315.1+2.7,
G332.5−5.6, G327.2−0.1, G350.1−0.3,
G353.6−0.7, G355.4+0.7, G358.1+1.0 and
G358.5−0.9. Note that G358.1+1.0 was in Versions VI and
VII with the wrong name, G358.1+0.1, which has been corrected in this
The following remnants were added to Version VII of the catalogue:
G21.6−0.8, G25.1−2.3, G35.6−0.4, G38.7−1.3,
G41.5+0.4, G42.0−0.1, G64.5+0.9, G65.8−0.5,
G66.0−0.0, G67.6+0.9, G67.8+0.5, G152.4−2.1,
G159.6+7.3, G178.2−4.2, G190.9−2.2,
G213.0−0.6, G296.7−0.9, G306.3−0.9,
G308.4−1.4, G310.6−1.6 and G322.1+0.0 (as noted
above, G65.8−0.5 has subsequently been removed).
G70.0−21.5 and G351.0−5.4 were added to the 2017 June
version of the catalogue.
The following remnants have been added to this version of the
The following are possible or probable SNRs for which further
observations are required to confirm their nature or parameters.
- G181.1+9.5, a faint radio shell identified
by Kothes et al. (2017).
- G323.7−1.0, which was one of several
candidate remnant given by Green, Reeves & Murphy (2014), which was
confirmed as a SNR from γ-ray observations (Araya 2017;
Abdalla et al. 2018b).
- Possible faint radio SNRs near l=150.°5,
b=4.°0 have been reported by Gao & Han (2014) and Gerbrandt et al.
(2014). Gao & Han proposed a large (180'×150') remnant,
G150.3+4.5, whereas Gerbrandt et al. proposed part of this as a
smaller (61'×18') remnant, G150.8+3.8. Recently Ackermann et al.
(2018) have shown extended γ-ray emission from much of
G150.3+4.5, confirming it as a SNR.
- Driessen et al. (2018) confirm G53.4+0.0 as a
SNR from radio and X-ray observations. This is one of several candidate
SNRs in this region (e.g. Anderson et al. 2017). See also Dokara
et al. (2018).
- Gómez-González & del Romero (1983) report a
possible SNR G57.1+1.7 (about 40 arcmin in extent), near the pulsar
PSR 1930+22. Later Routledge & Vaneldik (1988) instead proposed a
possible larger remnant, nearly 2° in diameter, near the same
pulsar. See also Kovalenko (1989).
- A possible SNR near the Galactic centre reported by Ho
et al. (1985) from radio observations (see also Coil & Ho 2000; Lu,
Wang & Lang 2003; Senda, Murakami & Koyama 2003, Johnson, Dong & Wang
2009). More recently Zhang et al. (2014) do not support a SNR
identification for this source.
- Gosachinskiĭ (1985) reported evidence for
non-thermal radio emission, presumably from SNRs, associated with
several bright, thermal Galactic sources. Some of these sources have
been included in the catalogue, following improved observations, but
also see Odegard (1986), who questions the reliability of some of
Gosachinskiĭ's results, and also suggest another possible SNR,
- G300.1+9.4, a possible SNR nearly 2° in diameter
reported by Dubner, Colomb & Giacani (1986).
- Gorham (1990) lists many SNR candidates from the Clark
Lake 30.9 MHz survey of the first quadrant, following Kassim (1988a),
although several have been shown not to be SNRs by Gorham, Kulkarni &
Prince (1993). Gorham et al. report a poorly defined possible remnant
G41.4+1.2 (previously G41.6+1.2 in Gorham 1990). Aharonian et al.
(2008a) note that one of Gorham's candidates, G44.6+0.1, is in the
vicinity of an extended region of γ-ray emission HESS
J1912+101 (see also Su et al. 2018, Abdalla et al. 2018b). There are
in fact two candidate remnants in Gorham (1990) which overlaps HESS
J1912+101, namely G44.6+0.1 and also G44.2+0.5 (although it should
be noted that Gorham's absolute positions are uncertain due ionospheric
effects, see Kassim 1988b). Plus, there is another candidate SNR
overlapping HESS J1912+101, G44.0−0.1 from Trushkin (2001), see
below. Another γ-ray source, HESS J1857+026 (see
Ackermann et al. 2017) corresponds to Gorham's candidate
- Four possible remnants (G45.9−0.1, G71.6−0.5,
G72.2−0.3 and G85.2−1.2) of the eleven reported by Taylor, Wallace
& Goss (1992) from a radio survey of part of the Galactic plane (see
also Kothes et al. 2006). Six of the other possible SNRs reported by
Taylor et al., are included in the catalogue as G55.0+0.3,
G59.5+0.1, G63.7+1.1, G67.7+1.8, G76.9+1.0
and G83.0−0.3, following improved observations which have
confirmed their nature. The other candidate, G84.9+0.5, was included
in earlier versions of the catalogue, but was removed in Version VI, as
it has been shown to be an HII region (see above).
- G356.6+0.1, G357.1−0.2, G358.7+0.7, G359.2−1.1,
G3.1−0.6 and G4.2+0.0, which are among the possible SNRs listed by
Gray (1994b) from radio observations near the Galactic centre. Several
of the other possible SNRs listed by Gray (1994b) are included in the
catalogue, following improved observations. See also Roy & Pramesh Rao
(2002) and Bhatnagar (2002) for additional observations.
- Duncan et al. (1995) and Duncan et al. (1997) list
several large-scale (1.5 to 10 degree), and smaller, low radio
surface-brightness candidate SNRs from the Parkes 2.4-GHz survey of
270° < l < 360°. Several of these candidates have been
confirmed as SNRs by subsequent, improved observations, and are included
in the catalogue. See also: Walker & Zealey (1998) for details of an
optical shell around the Coalsack Nebula (near l=300°,
b=0°) which overlaps one of these candidates; Camilo et al.
(2004), Chang et al. (2012) and Danilenko et al. (2012) for further
observations of another, G309.8−2.6, which is near a young pulsar; and
Russeil et al. (2005), who detected optical filaments from a third.
- Whiteoak & Green (1996), from their radio survey of
much of the southern Galactic plane, list many possible SNRs, several of
which have been included in the catalogue, following improved
observations, while most (G317.5+0.9, G320.6−0.9, G322.7+0.1,
G322.9−0.0, G323.2−1.0, G324.1+0.1, G325.0−0.3, G331.8−0.0,
G339.6−0.6, G345.1+0.2, G345.1−0.2, and
G348.8+1.1) have not. See also Green, Reeves & Murphy (2014) for
additional radio observations of several of these. Another of the
possible SNRs listed in Whiteoak & Green (1996), G319.9−0.7, has been
identified as a pulsar bow-shock by Ng et al. (2010).
- Several candidate SNRs reported by Combi & Romero (1998),
Combi, Romero & Arnal (1998), Combi, Romero & Benaglia (1998), Punsly et al.
(2000) and Combi et al. (2001) from spatially filter radio survey
- Possible SNRs, near l=313°, were reported by
Roberts et al. (1999), and Roberts, Romani & Johnston (2001). See also
Aharonian et al. (2006) γ-ray observations of the region.
- G359.07−0.02, a possible SNR noted by LaRosa et al.
(2000), see also Nakashima et al. (2010) and Ponti et al. (2015).
- A possible SNRs near G6.4−0.1 (=W28) noted by
Yusef-Zadeh et al. (2000). (A second possible remnant noted by
Yusef-Zadeh et al. has been included in the catalogue, as
G6.5−0.4, following the improved observations of it by Brogan
et al. 2006).
- Gaensler et al. (2000), in a search for pulsar wind
nebulae, found a small shell of radio emission near PSR B1356−60 –
which they designate G311.28+1.09 – which may be a supernova remnant.
- A possible SNR, G328.6−0.0, noted by McClure-Griffiths
et al. (2001) in the test region of the Southern Galactic Plane Survey.
- G346.5−0.1, an arc of radio emission observed by Gaensler
et al. (2001), which is potentially part of a SNR, but requires further
observations to confirm its nature.
- Giacani et al. (2001) presented observations of a pulsar wind
nebula around PSR J1709−4428, which may be part of the catalogued remnant
G343.1−2.3, or may represent another object.
- Several possible SNRs reported by Trushkin (2001),
which were identified from Galactic radio surveys (one of which,
G6.1+0.5, is included in the catalogue, due to improved
- Two possibles SNRs (G336.1−0.2 and G352.2−0.1)
discussed briefly by Manchester et al. (2002).
- G282.8−1.2, a possible young SNR noted by Misanovic,
Cram & Green (2002).
- G43.5+0.6, one of three possible SNRs identified by
Kaplan et al. (2002); the other two are included in the catalogue, as
G41.5+0.4 and G42.0−0.1, because subsequent observations
have shown they have non-thermal radio spectra.
- Two candidate large SNRs (diameters of approximately
3° and 1.°6) are reported from radio surveys in the
Galactic anticentre by Reich (2002), although their coordinates are not
given. See also Soberski, Reich & Wielebinski (2005).
- G107.5−1.5, a probable remnant identified at by Kothes
(2003), but the full extent of which is not well defined at present
(see also Kothes et al. 2006; Jackson, Safi-Harb & Kothes 2014).
- Zhang (2003) identified four candidate SNRs from radio
surveys, on the basis of shell structure with apparent non-thermal radio
spectra. One of these – called G41.9+0.04 by Zhang – corresponds to
the catalogued SNR G42.0−0.1. However, the other three proposed
SNR candidates appear to be thermal sources, not SNRs.
First, the source called G47.8+2.03 by Zhang has a thermal spectrum on
the basis of its published 2.7-GHz flux density (Fürst et al. 1990b)
and Zhang's 1.4-GHz flux density. Second, Zhang's source G74.8+0.63 is
a known HII region Sharpless Sh 2-104 (e.g. Dickel & Milne 1972;
Israël 1977; Weiler & Shaver 1978; Pineault & Chastenay 1990). Note
that Israël had discussed that this source had been included in some
SNR earlier catalogues (Milne 1970; Downes 1971), before the HII
region identification became clear. Third, Zhang's source G93.2+2.63,
is identified as a thermal source by Arvidsson, Kerton & Foster (2009),
as radio recombination lines from it have been detected .
- Brogan et al. (2006) identify 35 new SNRs in the region
4.°5 < l < 22°, |b| < 1.°25, of which the 31 which
are classed as `I' or `II' (i.e. those thought to be very or fairly
confidently identified as SNRs) were included in the 2006 version of the
catalogue. Two of these – G20.4+0.1 and G21.5−0.1 – have
subsequently been removed, as they have been identified as HII regions
(see above). Four other possible SNRs – labelled
G5.71−0.08, G6.31+0.54, G15.51−0.15 and G19.13+0.90 – which
comprise Brogan et al.'s class `III', are not included in the catalogue,
as further observations are required to confirm their nature and better
define their parameters. See also Aharonian et al. (2008b), Hewitt &
Yusef-Zadeh (2009), Joubert et al. (2016), Stupar, Parker &
Few (2018) and Shan et al. (2018).
- Helfand et al. (2006) list many SNR candidates in the
region 5° < l < 32°, |b| < 0.°8 from MAGPIS.
Many of these correspond to sources in Brogan et al., and several are
included in the catalogue, with the others requiring further
observations. Note that the integrated flux densities reported in
Helfand et al. are very high compared with those reported in Brogan
et al.. One of these candidates, G29.07+0.45, is known planetary
nebula (Abell 1955, 1966; see also Todt et al. 2013, Frew et al. 2014).
Many of these candidate SNRs are also discussed by Johanson & Kerton
(2009), who conclude that eight of them are HII regions rather than
SNRs. Several of these candidates are also associated with `bubbles'
from HII regions (Simpson et al. 2012), or with known or candidate
HII region in the WISE HII region catalogue (Anderson et al. 2014).
Much of region covered by the MAGPIS survey has more recently been
observed by the THOR survey, see further discussion below.
- Martí et al. (2007), report extended radio emission near
the X-ray source KS 1741−295 near the Galactic centre which may be a SNR (see
also Cherepashchuk et al. 1994).
- A poorly defined possible SNR, near l=151°,
b=3° has been reported by Kerton, Murphy & Patterson (2007).
- Roberts & Brogan (2008) propose a new SNR, G7.5−1.7,
from non-thermal radio emission near a pulsar wind nebula, although
currently the extent of the remnant is not well defined.
- Anderson et al. (2012) report extended radio emission,
designated G333.9+0.0, near a magnetar, which may be a SNR.
- G354.4+0.0 a possible small remnant reported by
Roy & Pal (2013) from radio observations.
- Five candidate remnants, G108.5+11.0, G128.5+2.6,
G149.5+3.2, G150.8+3.8 and G160.1−1.1, are identified from radio
surveys by Gerbrandt et al. (2014). One of these, G150.8+3.8, is part
of SNR G150.3+4.5 (Gao & Han 2014), which has been added to this
version of the catalogue.
- Sidorin et al. (2014) note that there is possibly
non-thermal radio emission near l=51°, b=0°),
overlapping GLIMPSE IR bubble N107, which may indicate a SNR. More
recently Supan et al. (2018) present radio and IR observations of this
region, and suggest part of the non-thermal emission noted by Sidorin
et al., as a SNR. See also Anderson et al. (2017), Driessen et al.
(2018) and Dokara et al. (2018).
- Kothes et al. (2014) report the discovery of a new
PWN, G141.2+5.0, which lies within an HI cavity, which might
be an indication of remnant. See also Reynolds & Borkowski (2016).
- Green, Reeves & Murphy (2014) list over twenty
candidate SNRs identified in the second epoch Molonglo Galactic Plane
Survey. Two of these, G296.7−0.9 and G308.4−1.4 were added
in Version VII of the catalogue, and G323.7−1.0 has been added to
this version of the catalogue, based on other available observations.
Several of the others are previously reported candidate SNRs (e.g.
Duncan et al. 1995; Whiteoak & Green 1996; Duncan et al. 1997).
- Demetroullas et al. (2015) suggest a region of radio
emission, NGC 6334D (near l=351.°6, b=0.°2), seen in their
31-GHz observations, apparently with a non-thermal radio spectrum, might
be a SNR. (Note that the coordinates of some figures in Demetroullas
et al. are in error.) However, other available observations of this
region do not support a SNR identification for NGC 6334D. Demetroullas
et al. noted there are two sources in the Northern VLA Sky Survey (NVSS,
Condon et al. 1998, at 1.4 GHz with a resolution of 45 arcsec) in the
region of NGC 6334D, with peaks of 2.1 and 2.0 Jy beam−1. Each of
these sources have integrated flux densities of about 3.8 Jy in the
NVSS, and other observations (e.g. Murphy et al. 2007) show they have
relatively flat radio spectra. They are each associated with one or more
compact HII regions identified by Giveon et al. (2005), from higher
resolution 5-GHz and IR observations. The NVSS sources are separated by
about 4 arcmin, and – with flat radio sepctra – explain the extended
emission of NGC 6334D seen in Demetroullas et al.'s lower resolution
31-GHz image. Higher quality 1.4-GHz observations from the SGPS
(Haverkorn et al. 2006) do not show any obvious emission, apart from
that from the NVSS sources, in this region that might indicate a SNR.
- A sample of `giant radio sources' identified in the
NVSS is presented by Proctor (2016). One of these sources, NVGRC
J205051.1+312728 is annotated as `SNR?' (among other possibilities),
but this is actually part of the Cygnus Loop (=G74.0−8.5,
e.g. see Green 1990b). Several other of these sources also correspond
to known SNRs, including other parts of the Cygnus Loop.
- Bihr et al. (2016) present radio observations in the
regions l=14.°0−37.°9 and l=47.°1−51.°2, |b| ≤
1.°1, from the THOR survey (e.g. Beuther et al. 2016). This
includes many of the candidates in Helfand et al. (2006), and Bihr
et al. identify several of these as HII regions. Anderson et al.
(2017) use radio observations from THOR and VGPS, plus mid-IR
observations, to identify 76 candidate remnants in 17.°5 < l <
67.°4, |b| ≤ 1.°5. Several of which correspond to candidates
previously identified by Helfand et al. (2016) from the MAGPIS survey
(see above). Several of these candidates are small (less than 2' in
extent), and would be very young SNRs even if at the far side of the
Galaxy. For several of these small candidates higher resolution radio
observations are available from the MAGPIS
which do not support these as being young SNRs. For example, the
candidate G38.83−0.01 from Anderson et al. (2017), given as a radius
of 0.'6, is resolved into 2 compact sources. See also Castelletti
et al. (2017), Dokara et al. (2018) and Driessen et al. (2018) for
further observations of some of the candidates listed by Anderson et al.
- Sushch et al. (2017) present radio observations that
identify a possible SNR, G304.4−0.2.
- Dzib et al. (2018) present observations of small (only
about 15'' in extent) radio shell, which they suggest may be a SNR.
However, this source has already been identified as a candidate PN by
Froebrich et al. (2015).
- Winkler et al. (1989) report a possible small
(4 arcmin) SNR within the Puppis A remnant, from optical observations
(see also Sutherland & Dopita 1995). This has not been detected at
radio wavelengths (see Dubner et al. 1991).
- G75.5+2.4, a possible large (1.°5×1.°8) old
SNR in Cygnus suggested by Nichols-Bohlin & Fesen (1993) from infra-red
and optical observations (see also Dewdney & Lozinskaya 1994; Marston
1996; Esipov et al. 1996; Kothes et al. 2006).
- Two possible SNRs, G340.5+0.7 and G342.1+0.1,
identified by Walker, Zealey & Parker (2001) from filaments seen in
Hα survey observations. The larger of these, G342.1+0.1,
overlaps some catalogued SNRs.
- A possible SNR which was identified by Bally &
Reipurth (2001) – which they label as G110.3+11.3 – from optical
filaments. See also Rector & Schweiker (2013).
- A candidate remnant, near l=70°, b=2°
noted by Mavromatakis & Strom (2002), for which Kothes et al. (2006) do
not find any radio counterpart at either 408 MHz or 1.4 GHz.
- A possible remnant identified from optical filaments to
the NE of the known SNR G116.5+1.1, as observed by Mavromatakis
et al. (2005).
- Russell et al. (2007) report a small (about 7 arcmin in
extent) optical ring, which is very faint at radio wavelengths, just to
the NW of Cygnus X-1. This may be a SNR if it is not associated with
Cygnus X-1 (see also Gallo et al. 2005).
- Stupar, Parker & Filipović (2008) report several SNR
candidates identified from Hα observations, several of which
correspond to SNR candidates first suggested by Duncan et al. (1995,
1997) from radio observations. The full extent of most of these are not
well defined, but two are currently included in the main catalogue
(G315.1+2.7, and G332.5−5.6).
- Mavromatakis et al. (2009) report a candidate SNR,
G70.5+1.9, from optical observations.
- Optical filaments indicating a possible new SNR,
G304.4−3.1 are presented by Stupar, Parker & Filipović (2010).
- Stupar, Parker & Filipović (2011) report a possible
new SNR, G310.5−0.8, identified from optical filaments and associated
- H1538−32 a large X-ray source in Lupus, near
l=340°, b=+18° was identified as a possible SNR by
Riegler, Agrawal & Gull (1980), see also Colomb, Dubner & Giacani
(1984), Gahm et al. (1990). However, more recently Franco (2002) suggest
it is instead a local X-ray enhancement.
- G189.6+3.3, a faint, possible SNR overlapping
G189.1+3.0 (=IC443) identified by Asaoka & Aschenbach (1994) from
ROSAT X-ray observations (see also Lee et al. 2008, Castelletti et al.
- G117.7+0.6, a faint shell of soft X-ray emission near
G116.9+0.2 (=CTB 1), which contains a pulsar (Hailey & Craig
1995; see also Craig, Hailey & Pisarski 1997, Kothes et al. 2006 and
Esposito et al. 2008).
- A possible SNR identified in X-rays around the pulsar
B1828−13 suggested by Finley, Srinivasan & Park (1996), see also
Braun, Goss & Lyne (1989) and Shan et al. (2018). But Pavlov,
Kargaltsev & Brisken (2008) do not find any evidence for a remnant
- A possible, large SNR, G69.4+1.2, identified as an
X-ray shell by Yoshita, Miyata & Tsunemi (1999, 2000). See also
Mavromatakis, Boumis & Paleologou (2002) and Kothes et al. (2006).
- Schaudel et al. (2002) report 14 candidate SNRs
identified in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey, but provided images and
coordinates for only 3 of these (which have been included in the
catalogue, as G38.7−1.3, G296.7−0.9 and G308.4−1.4,
following improved observations of them).
- Many possible SNRs near the Galactic Centre have been
reported by various authors from X-ray observations (e.g. Senda,
Murakami & Koyama 2002, 2003; Renaud et al. 2006; Koyama et al. 2007;
Mori et al. 2008; Nobukawa et al. 2008; Inui et al. 2009; Tsuru et al.
2009; Sawada et al. 2009; Heard & Warwick 2013; Ponti et al. 2015),
which are reviewed by Koyama (2018). See also Law, Yusef-Zadeh & Cotton
(2008) and Dexter et al. (2017).
- Several possible SNRs are reported by Bamba et al.
(2003) and Ueno et al. (2005, 2006), two of which have been included in
the catalogue (as G28.6−0.1 and G32.4+0.1), as additional
observations confirm their nature. One of the proposed remnants is
called G11.0+0.0, but is larger than the currently catalogued
One of these candidates, G37.0−0.1, has been identified as
a cluster of Galaxies by Yamauchi, Bamba & Koyama (2011).
The nature of another, G25.5+0.0, has been
questioned by Kargaltsev et al. (2012), who also proposed another,
smaller possible SNR, G25.25+0.28, which corresponds to one of the
candidates listed by Helfand et al. (2006). For a third source,
G23.5+0.1, Kargalstev et al. prefer a pulsar wind nebula
interpretation. Yamauchi, Sumita & Bamba (2016) also identify
G23.5+0.1 and G22.0+0.0 as pulsar wind nebulae.
- Henley & Shelton (2009) report a possible large
(~10°) SNR at high Galactic latitudes, from the ROSAT All-Sky
- Brief details a possible new SNR identified from the
Swift X-ray Galactic Plane Survey are reported by Reynolds et al.
- Nobukawa et al. (2015) present Suzaku observations
which indicate a likely SNR near l=26.°4, b=−0.°2.
- Araya (2018) reports a large (greater than 3°)
region of γ-ray emission at l=350.°6, b=−4.°7, which may
be a SNR.
It should also be noted:
(a) Some large radio continuum, HI or CO loops in the Galactic plane
(e.g. Berkhuijsen 1973) may be parts of very large, old SNRs, but they
have not been included in the catalogue.
See also Grenier et al. (1989), Combi et al. (1995), Maciejewski et al.
(1996), Kim & Koo (2000), Normandeau et al. (2000), Woermann, Gaylard
& Otrupcek (2001), Stil & Irwin (2001), Uyanıker & Kothes (2002),
Olano, Meschin & Niemela (2006), Borka (2007), Kang, Koo & Salter (2012),
Xiao & Zhu (2014), Cichowolski et al. (2014), Sallmen et al. (2015).
Gao & Han (2013) discuss the nature of the Origem Loop – a large
radio loop – which has at times been regarded as a remnant. Also Koo,
Kang & Salter (2006) and Kang & Koo (2007) identify faint Galactic
HI features at forbidden velocities as indicators of old, otherwise
(b) Some large (> 10°) regions of X-ray emission that are
indicative of a SNR are not included in the catalogue;
e.g. the Monogem ring, near l=203°, b=+12° (see Nousek
et al. 1981, Plucinsky et al. 1996, Thorsett et al. 2003, Amenomori
et al. 2005, Plucinsky 2009, and references therein, plus Weinberger,
Temporin & Stecklum 2006, for observations of optical filaments);
in the Gum Nebula near l=250°, b=0° (see Leahy, Nousek
& Garmire 1992, and also see Reynolds 1976, Dubner et al. 1992, Duncan
et al. 1996, Reynoso & Dubner 1997, Heiles 1998, Pagani et al. 2012,
Purcell et al. 2015, Knies, Sasaki & Plucinsky 2018);
in Eridanus near l=200°, b=−40° (see Naranan et al.
1976, Burrows et al. 1993, Snowden et al. 1995, Heiles 1998, Boumis
et al. 2001, Ryu et al. 2006);
a large approximately 24° diameter, X-ray and optical loop in
Antlia (see McCullough, Fields & Pavlidou 2002, Shinn et al. 2007).
(c) The distinction between filled-centre remnants and pulsar wind nebulae
(PWNe) is not clear, and isolated, generally faint, pulsar wind nebulae are
also not included in the catalogue. See the catalogue of PWNe by
Kaspi, Roberts & Harding (2006)
(also see `Pulsar Wind Nebula Catalog' online),
and the high-energy SNR and PWNe catalogue noted
- G287.8−0.5, which is associated with η Carinae, was
listed in Version I as a SNR, but was removed from the catalogue in Version II
as its parameters are uncertain (see Jones 1973; Retallack 1984; Tateyama,
Strauss & Kaufmann 1991; and the discussion in Version II).
- G359.2−0.8 (the `mouse'), near the Galactic centre, which
has been suggested as being analogous to the central region of G69.0+2.7
(=CTB 80) by Predehl & Kulkarni (1995), i.e. a pulsar powered nebula (see
also Camilo et al. 2002).
As noted in Versions II and IV of the catalogue, the following sources
are listed as SNRs, although, as discussed in each case, the
identifications are not certain: G5.4−1.2, G39.7−2.0
(=W50), G69.0+2.7 (=CTB 80), G318.9+0.4 and
G357.7−0.1. The nature of G76.9+1.0 (an unusual radio
source similar to G65.7+1.2), and of G354.1+0.1 (which may
be similar to G357.7−0.1 (=MSH 17−39)) are also
uncertain (see Landecker, Higgs & Wendker 1993 and Frail, Goss &
There are also some objects that have been identified as SNRs and are
listed in the catalogue, although they have been barely resolved in the
available observations, or are faint, and have not been well separated
from confusing background or nearby thermal emission, and their
identification as SNRs, or at least their parameters remain uncertain.
This research has made use of NASA's Astrophysics Data System
Bibliographic Services, and the SIMBAD database, operated at CDS,
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