A Catalogue of Galactic Supernova Remnants

2009 March version

D. A. Green
Astrophysics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, 19 J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE, UNITED KINGDOM


Contents of this document.

Other pages.


1. The Catalogue Format

This catalogue of Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) is an updated version of those presented in detail in Green (1984, 1988) and in summary form in Green (1991, 1996, 2004) – hereafter Versions I, II, III, IV and V respectively – and on the World-Wide-Web, in versions of 1995 July, 1996 August, 1998 September, 2000 August, 2001 December, 2004 January and 2006 April. (Version IV, although published in 1996, was produced in 1993, and a detailed version of this was made available on the World-Wide-Web in 1993 November. The summary data from the 2001 December version of the catalogue was also published as an Appendix in Stephenson & Green 2002.)

This, the 2009 March version of the catalogue, contains 274 SNRs (which is 9 more than in the previous, 2006 April, version: 10 new remnants have been added, and 1 has been removed, see below), with over a thousand references in the detailed listings, plus notes on many possible or probable remnants.

For each remnant in the catalogue the following parameters are given.

In the detailed listings, for each remnant, notes on a variety of topics are given. First, it is noted if other Galactic coordinates have at times been used to label it (usually before good observations have revealed the full extent of the object), if the SNR is thought to be the remnant of a historical SN, or if the nature of the source as an SNR has been questioned (in which case an appropriate reference is usually given later in the entry). Brief descriptions of the remnant from the available radio, optical and X-ray observations as applicable are then given, together with notes on available distance determinations, and any point sources or pulsars in or near the object (although they may not necessarily be related to the remnant). Finally, appropriate references to observations are given for each remnant, complete with journal, volume, page, and a short description of what information each paper contains (for radio observations these include the telescopes used, the observing frequencies and resolutions, together with any flux density determinations). These references are not complete, but cover representative and recent observations of the remnant – up to the first the end of 2008 in this version of the catalogue – and they should themselves include references to earlier work. The references do not generally include large observational surveys – of particular interest in this respect are: the Effelsberg 100-m survey at 2.7 GHz of the Galactic plane 358° < l < 240°, |b| < 5° by Reich et al. (1990) and Fürst et al. (1990a); reviews of the radio spectra of some SNRs by Kassim (1989), Kovalenko, Pynzar' & Udal'tsov (1994) and Trushkin (1998); the Parkes 64-m survey at 2.4 GHz of the Galactic plane 238° < l < 365°, |b| < 5° by Duncan et al. (1995) and Duncan et al. (1997); the Molonglo Galactic plane survey at 843 MHz of 245° < l < 355°, |b| < 1°.5 by Green et al. (1999); the survey of 345° < l < 255°, |b| < 5° at 8.35 and 14.35 GHz by Langston et al. (2000); MAGPIS, see White, Becker & Helfand (2005) and Helfand et al. (2006); the VLA Galactic Plane Survey, see Stil et al. (2006); surveys of IRAS observations of SNRs and their immediate surroundings by Arendt (1989) and by Saken, Fesen & Shull (1992); the survey of HI emission towards SNRs by Koo & Heiles (1991); the SPITZER survey of inner galaxy SNRs by Reach et al. (2006); and the catalogue by Fesen & Hurford (1996) of UV/optical/infra-red lines identified in SNRs.

The catalogue is available as a summary listing of the parameters for each remnant, and as detailed listings (with references) for each object. Also see the list of other names used for these SNRs, and the list of abbreviations for journals, proceedings and telescopes used in the detailed listings.

2. Revisions and Notes

2.1 Objects no longer thought to be SNRs

The following objects, which were listed in Version I of the catalogue were removed because they were no longer thought to be remnants, or were poorly observed (see Version II for references and further details): G2.4+1.4 (see also Gray 1994a; Goss & Lozinskaya 1995; Polcaro et al. 1995), G41.9−4.1 (=CTB 73, PKS 1920+06), G47.6+6.1 (=CTB 63), G53.9+0.3 (part of HC40), G93.4+1.8 (=NRAO 655), G123.2+2.9, G194.7+0.4 (the Origem Loop), G287.8−0.5 (see below), G322.3−1.2 (=Kes 24) and G343.0−6.0 (but see below). G358.4−1.9, which was listed in Version IV of the catalogue, was removed, as following the discussion of Gray (1994a), as it is not clear that this is a SNR. G240.9−0.9, G299.0+0.2 and G328.0+0.3, which were listed in 1995 July version of the catalogue, were removed from the 1996 August version, following the improved observations of Duncan et al. (1996) and Whiteoak & Green (1996). For the 1998 September revision of the catalogue G350.0−1.8 was incorporated into G350.0−2.0, and G337.0−0.1 refers to a smaller remnant than that previously catalogued with the same name. G112.0+1.2, G117.4+5.0, G152.2−1.2 and G211.7−1.1 – which were reported as SNRs by Bonsignori-Facondi & Tomasi (1979) – were removed from the 2001 December version of the catalogue, as the first three of these are not confirmed as SNRs from the ongoing Canadian Galactic Plane Survey (Roland Kothes, private communication; but see below for further discussion of another proposed remnant, G213.0−0.6). G10.0−0.3, which was regarded as a remnant – possibly associated with a soft-gamma repeater – was removed from the 2004 January version of the catalogue, as it is now thought to be radio nebula powered by a stellar wind (see Gaensler et al. 2001, Corbel & Eikenberry 2004, and references therein). G166.2+2.5 (=OA 184) was removed from the 2006 April version of the catalogue, as it was identified as an HII region by Foster et al. (2006).

G84.9+0.5 was removed from this version of the catalogue, as it was identified as an HII region by Foster et al. (2007) (see also Kothes et al. 2006).

The following objects, which have been reported as SNRs, but have not been included in any of the versions of the SNR catalogue, have subsequently been shown not to be SNRs.

Some entries in the catalogue have been renamed, due to improved observations revealing a larger true extent for the object (previously G5.3−1.0 is now G5.4−1.2; G193.3−1.5 is now G192.8−1.1; G308.7+0.0 is now incorporated into G308.8−0.1). G337.0−0.1 now refers to a small (1.5 arcmin) remnant, rather than larger supposed remnant at this position (see Sarma et al. 1997), and G350.0−2.0 now incorporates the previously catalogued G350.0−1.8, based on the improved observations of Gaensler (1998).

2.2 New SNRs

The following remnants were added to Version II of the catalogue: G0.9+0.1, G1.9+0.3, G5.9+3.1, G6.4+4.0, G8.7−0.1, G16.8−1.1, G18.9−1.1, G20.0−0.2, G27.8+0.6, G30.7+1.0, G31.5−0.6, G36.6−0.7, G42.8+0.6, G45.7−0.4, G54.1+0.3, G73.9+0.9, G179.0+2.6, G312.4−0.4, G357.7+0.3 and G359.1−0.5.

The following remnants were added to Version III of the catalogue: G4.2−3.5, G5.2−2.6, G6.1+1.2, G8.7−5.0, G13.5+0.2, G15.1−1.6, G16.7+0.1, G17.4−2.3, G17.8−2.6, G30.7−2.0, G36.6+2.6, G43.9+1.6, G59.8+1.2, G65.1+0.6, G68.6−1.2, G69.7+1.0, G279.0+1.1, G284.3−1.8 (=MSH 10−53), G358.4−1.9 and G359.0−0.9 (although, as noted above, G358.4−1.9 was subsequently removed).

The following remnants were added to Version IV of the catalogue: G59.5+0.1, G67.7+1.8, G84.9+0.5, G156.2+5.7, G318.9+0.4, G322.5−0.1, G343.1−2.3 and G348.5−0.0 (although, as noted above, G84.9+0.5 was subequently removed).

The following remnants were added to 1995 July version of the catalogue: G1.0−0.1, G1.4−0.1, G3.7−0.2, G3.8+0.3, G28.8+1.5, G76.9+1.0, G272.2−3.2, G341.2+0.9, G354.1+0.1, G355.6−0.0, G356.3−0.3, G356.3−1.5 and G359.1+0.9.

The following remnants were added to the 1996 August version of the catalogue: G13.3−1.3, G286.5−1.2, G289.7−0.3, G294.1−0.0, G299.2−2.9, G299.6−0.5, G301.4−1.0, G308.1−0.7, G310.6−0.3, G310.8−0.4, G315.9−0.0, G317.3−0.2, G318.2+0.1, G320.6−1.6, G321.9−1.1, G327.4+1.0, G329.7+0.4, G342.1+0.9, G343.1−0.7, G345.7−0.2, G349.2−0.1, G351.7+0.8, G351.9−0.9 and G354.8−0.8.

The following remnants were added to the 1998 September version of the catalogue: G0.3+0.0, G32.1−0.9, G55.0+0.3, G63.7+1.1 and G182.4+4.3.

The following remnants were added to the 2000 August version of the catalogue: G7.0−0.1, G16.2−2.7, G29.6+0.1, G266.2−1.2 and G347.3−0.5.

The following remnants were added to the 2001 December version of the catalogue: G4.8+6.2, G28.6−0.1, G85.4+0.7, G85.9−0.6, G106.3+2.7, G292.2−0.5, G343.0−6.0, G353.9−2.0, G356.2+4.5 and G358.0+3.8.

G312.5−3.0 was added to the 2004 January version of the catalogue.

The following remnants were added to the 2006 April version of the catalogue: G5.5+0.3, G6.1+0.5, G6.5−0.4, G7.2+0.2, G8.3−0.0, G8.9+0.4, G9.7−0.0, G9.9−0.8, G10.5−0.0, G11.0−0.0, G11.1−0.7, G11.1−1.0, G11.1+0.1, G11.8−0.2, G12.2+0.3, G12.5+0.2, G12.7−0.0, G12.8−0.0, G14.1−0.1, G14.3+0.1, G15.4+0.1, G16.0−0.5, G16.4−0.5, G17.0−0.0, G17.4−0.1, G18.1−0.1, G18.6−0.2, G19.1+0.2, G20.4+0.1, G21.0−0.4, G21.5−0.1, G32.4+0.1, G96.0+2.0, G113.0+0.2 and G337.2+0.1.

The following remnants have been added to this version of the catalogue.

2.3 Possible and probable SNRs not listed in the catalogue

The following are possible or probable SNRs for which further observations are required to confirm their nature or parameters, or for which observations are not yet in the published literature.

2.3.1 Radio

2.3.2 UV/Optical/Infra-red

2.3.3 X-ray/γ-ray

2.3.4 Other

It should also be noted that: (a) some large radio continuum and HI loops in the Galactic plane (e.g. Berkhuijsen 1973) may be parts of very large, old SNRs, but they have not been included in the catalogue (see also Combi et al. 1995; Maciejewski et al. 1996; Kim & Koo 2000; Normandeau et al. 2000; Woermann, Gaylard & Otrupcek 2001; Stil & Irwin 2001; Uyanıker & Kothes 2002; Olano, Meschin & Niemela 2006), also see Koo, Kang & Salter (2006) and Kang & Koo (2007) who identify faint Galactic HI features at forbidden velocities as indicators of old, otherwise undetectable SNRs; (b) some large (> 10°) regions of X-ray emission that are indicative of a SNR are not included in the catalogue (e.g. the Monogem ring, near l=203°, b=+12°, see Nousek et al. 1981, Plucinsky et al. 1996, Thorsett et al. 2003, Amenomori et al. 2005, and references therein, plus Weinberger, Temporin & Stecklum 2006, for observations of optical filaments; in the Gum Nebula near l=250°, b=0°, see Leahy, Nousek & Garmire 1992, and also see Reynolds 1976, Dubner et al. 1992, Duncan et al. 1996, Reynoso & Dubner 1997, Heiles 1998; in Eridanus near l=200°, b=−40°, see Naranan et al. 1976, Burrows et al. 1993, Snowden et al. 1995, Heiles 1998, Boumis et al. 2001, Ryu et al. 2006); a large approximately 24° diameter, X-ray and optical loop in Antlia, see McCullough, Fields & Pavlidou 2002, Shinn et al. 2007); (c) the distinction between filled-centre remnants and pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) is not clear, and isolated, generally faint, pulsar wind nebulae are also not included in the catalogue. Kaspi, Roberts & Harding (2006) provide a catalogue of (see also the `Pulsar Wind Nebula Catalog' online, and Camilo et al. 2004b, Aharonian et al. 2005, Hessels et al. 2005, Aharonian et al. 2006b, Gonzalez et al. 2006, Wang, Lu & Gotthelf 2006, Aharonian et al. 2007, Hinton et al. 2007, Bhattacharyya 2008, Gotthelf & Halpern 2008, Muno et al. 2008).

2.4 Questionable SNRs listed in the catalogue

As noted in Versions II and IV of the catalogue, the following sources are listed as SNRs, although, as discussed in each case, the identifications are not certain: G5.4−1.2, G39.7−2.0 (=W50), G69.0+2.7 (=CTB 80), G318.9+0.4 and G357.7−0.1. The nature of G76.9+1.0 (an unusual radio source similar to G65.7+1.2), and of G354.1+0.1 (which may be similar to G357.7−0.1 (=MHS 17−39)) are also uncertain (see Landecker, Higgs & Wendker 1993 and Frail, Goss & Whiteoak 1994).

There are also some objects that have been identified as SNRs and are listed in the catalogue, although they have been barely resolved in the available observations, or are faint, and have not been well separated from confusing background or nearby thermal emission, and their identification as SNRs, or at least their parameters remain uncertain.

Acknowledgements

This research has made use of NASA's Astrophysics Data System Bibliographic Services.

References


Dave Green/Cambridge, UK/D.A.Green@mrao.cam.ac.uk