A Catalogue of Galactic Supernova Remnants
2009 March version
D. A. Green
19 J. J. Thomson Avenue,
Cambridge CB3 0HE,
Contents of this document.
- The summary listings of all 274 SNRs.
- The detailed listings of all 274 SNRs.
- A list of other names for Galactic
- The abbreviations for journals/telescopes
used in the detailed listings.
- A frames interface to the catalogue.
- How to get a paper version of the
- A feedback comment form.
This catalogue of Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) is an updated version of
those presented in detail in Green (1984, 1988) and in summary form in Green
(1991, 1996, 2004) – hereafter Versions I, II, III, IV and V respectively –
and on the World-Wide-Web, in versions of 1995 July, 1996 August, 1998
September, 2000 August, 2001 December, 2004 January and 2006 April. (Version
IV, although published in 1996, was produced in 1993, and a detailed version of
this was made available on the World-Wide-Web in 1993 November. The summary
data from the 2001 December version of the catalogue was also published as an
Appendix in Stephenson & Green 2002.)
This, the 2009 March version of the catalogue, contains 274 SNRs (which is 9
more than in the previous, 2006 April, version: 10 new remnants have been
added, and 1 has been removed, see below), with over a thousand references in
the detailed listings, plus notes on many possible or probable remnants.
For each remnant in the catalogue the following parameters are given.
In the detailed listings, for each remnant, notes on a
variety of topics are given. First, it is noted if other Galactic coordinates
have at times been used to label it (usually before good observations have
revealed the full extent of the object), if the SNR is thought to be the
remnant of a historical SN, or if the nature of the source as an SNR has been
questioned (in which case an appropriate reference is usually given later in
the entry). Brief descriptions of the remnant from the available radio, optical
and X-ray observations as applicable are then given, together with notes on
available distance determinations, and any point sources or pulsars in or near
the object (although they may not necessarily be related to the remnant).
Finally, appropriate references to observations are given for each remnant,
complete with journal, volume, page, and a short description of what
information each paper contains (for radio observations these include the
telescopes used, the observing frequencies and resolutions, together with any
flux density determinations). These references are not complete, but
cover representative and recent observations of the remnant – up to the first
the end of 2008 in this version of the catalogue – and they should themselves
include references to earlier work. The references do not generally include
large observational surveys – of particular interest in this respect are: the
Effelsberg 100-m survey at 2.7 GHz of the Galactic plane 358° < l <
240°, |b| < 5° by Reich et al. (1990) and Fürst et al.
(1990a); reviews of the radio spectra of some SNRs by Kassim (1989), Kovalenko,
Pynzar' & Udal'tsov (1994) and Trushkin (1998); the Parkes 64-m survey at
2.4 GHz of the Galactic plane 238° < l < 365°, |b| <
5° by Duncan et al. (1995) and Duncan et al. (1997); the Molonglo
Galactic plane survey at 843 MHz of 245° < l < 355°, |b| <
1°.5 by Green et al. (1999); the survey of 345° < l <
255°, |b| < 5° at 8.35 and 14.35 GHz by Langston et al.
(2000); MAGPIS, see White, Becker & Helfand (2005) and Helfand et al. (2006);
the VLA Galactic Plane Survey, see Stil et al. (2006); surveys of IRAS
observations of SNRs and their immediate surroundings by Arendt (1989) and by
Saken, Fesen & Shull (1992); the survey of HI emission towards SNRs by Koo
& Heiles (1991); the SPITZER survey of inner galaxy SNRs by Reach et al.
(2006); and the catalogue by Fesen & Hurford (1996) of UV/optical/infra-red
lines identified in SNRs.
- Galactic Coordinates of the source centroid, quoted to
the nearest tenth of a degree as is conventional. (Note: in this catalogue
additional leading zeros are not used.)
- Other Names that are commonly used for the remnant.
These are given in parentheses if the remnant is only a part of the source. For
some remnants, notably the Crab Nebula, not all common names are given.
- Right Ascension and Declination of the source
centroid. The accuracy of the quoted values depends on the size of the remnant;
for small remnants they are to the nearest few seconds of time and the nearest
minute of arc respectively, whereas for larger remnants they are rounded to
coarser values, but are in every case sufficient to specify a point within the
boundary of the remnant. These coordinates are usually deduced from radio maps
rather than from X-ray or optical observations, and are for J2000.0.
- Angular Size of the remnant, in arcminutes, usually
taken from the highest resolution radio map available. The boundary of most
remnants approximates reasonably well to a circle or an ellipse. A single value
is quoted for the angular size of the more nearly circular remnants, which is
the diameter of a circle with an area equal to that of the remnant. For
elongated remnants the product of two values is quoted, and these are the major
and minor axes of the remnant boundary modelled as an ellipse. In a few cases
an ellipse is not a satisfactory description of the boundary of the object
(refer to the description of the individual object given in its catalogue
entry), although an angular size is still quoted for information. For
`filled-centre' remnants the size quoted is for the largest extent of the
observed radio emission, not, as at times has been used by others, the
half-width of the centrally brightened peak.
- Flux Density of the remnant at 1 GHz in jansky. This is
not a measured value, but is deduced from the observed radio-frequency
spectrum of the source. The frequency of 1 GHz is chosen because flux density
measurements at frequencies both above and below this value are usually
- Spectral Index of the integrated radio emission from the
α (here defined in the sense, S ∝
ν−&alpha, where S is the
flux density at a frequency ν),
either a value that is quoted in the literature, or one deduced from the
available integrated flux densities of the remnant. For several SNRs a simple
power law is not adequate to describe their radio spectra, either because there
is evidence that the integrated spectrum is curved or the spectral index varies
across the face of the remnant. In these cases the spectral index is given as
`varies' (refer to the description of the remnant and appropriate references in
the detailed catalogue entry for more information). In some cases, for example
where the remnant is highly confused with thermal emission, the spectral index
is given as `?' since no value can be deduced with any confidence.
- Type of the SNR: `S' or `F' if the remnant shows a
`shell' or `filled-centre' structure, or `C' if it shows `composite' (or
`combination') radio structure with a combination of shell and filled-centre
characteristics; or `S?', `F?' or `C?', respectively, if there is some
uncertainty; or `?' in several cases where an object is conventionally regarded
as an SNR even though its nature is poorly known or not well-understood. Until
recently only a few remnants were classified as composite remnants, as
available observations were only able to identify the more obvious
pulsar-powered, flatter radio spectrum filled-centre components within shells.
However, in recent years improved observations – particularly in X-rays with
the Chandra satellite – have identified many faint, pulsar powered
nebulae in what until then had been identified as pure shell remnants. (Note:
the term `composite' has been used in a different sense, by some authors, to
describe SNRs with shell radio and centrally-brightened X-ray morphologies. An
alternative term used to describe such remnants is `mixed morphology', see Rho
& Petre 1998.)
The catalogue is available as a summary listing
of the parameters for each remnant, and as
detailed listings (with references) for each
object. Also see the list of
other names used for these SNRs, and
the list of abbreviations for journals,
proceedings and telescopes used in the detailed listings.
The following objects, which were listed in Version I of the
catalogue were removed because they were no longer thought to be remnants, or
were poorly observed (see Version II for references and further details):
G2.4+1.4 (see also Gray 1994a; Goss & Lozinskaya 1995; Polcaro et al. 1995),
G41.9−4.1 (=CTB 73, PKS 1920+06), G47.6+6.1 (=CTB 63), G53.9+0.3
(part of HC40), G93.4+1.8 (=NRAO 655), G123.2+2.9, G194.7+0.4 (the
Origem Loop), G287.8−0.5 (see below), G322.3−1.2 (=Kes 24) and
G343.0−6.0 (but see below). G358.4−1.9, which was listed in Version IV of
the catalogue, was removed, as following the discussion of Gray (1994a), as it
is not clear that this is a SNR. G240.9−0.9, G299.0+0.2 and G328.0+0.3,
which were listed in 1995 July version of the catalogue, were removed from the
1996 August version, following the improved observations of Duncan et al.
(1996) and Whiteoak & Green (1996). For the 1998 September revision of the
catalogue G350.0−1.8 was incorporated into G350.0−2.0, and
refers to a smaller remnant than that previously catalogued with the same name.
G112.0+1.2, G117.4+5.0, G152.2−1.2 and G211.7−1.1 – which were
reported as SNRs by Bonsignori-Facondi & Tomasi (1979) – were removed from
the 2001 December version of the catalogue, as the first three of these are not
confirmed as SNRs from the ongoing Canadian Galactic Plane Survey (Roland
Kothes, private communication; but see below for further discussion of
another proposed remnant, G213.0−0.6). G10.0−0.3, which was regarded as a
remnant – possibly associated with a soft-gamma repeater – was removed from
the 2004 January version of the catalogue, as it is now thought to be radio
nebula powered by a stellar wind (see Gaensler et al. 2001, Corbel &
Eikenberry 2004, and references therein). G166.2+2.5 (=OA 184) was removed
from the 2006 April version of the catalogue, as it was identified as an HII
region by Foster et al. (2006).
G84.9+0.5 was removed from this version of the catalogue, as it was
identified as an HII region by Foster et al. (2007) (see also
Kothes et al. 2006).
The following objects, which have been reported as SNRs, but have not been
included in any of the versions of the SNR catalogue, have subsequently been
shown not to be SNRs.
Some entries in the catalogue have been renamed, due to
improved observations revealing a larger true extent for the object (previously
G5.3−1.0 is now G5.4−1.2; G193.3−1.5 is now G192.8−1.1;
G308.7+0.0 is now incorporated into G308.8−0.1). G337.0−0.1 now
refers to a small (1.5 arcmin) remnant, rather than larger supposed remnant at
this position (see Sarma et al. 1997), and G350.0−2.0 now incorporates
the previously catalogued G350.0−1.8, based on the improved observations of
The following remnants were added to Version II of the catalogue:
G0.9+0.1, G1.9+0.3, G5.9+3.1, G6.4+4.0,
G8.7−0.1, G16.8−1.1, G18.9−1.1, G20.0−0.2,
G27.8+0.6, G30.7+1.0, G31.5−0.6, G36.6−0.7,
G42.8+0.6, G45.7−0.4, G54.1+0.3, G73.9+0.9,
G179.0+2.6, G312.4−0.4, G357.7+0.3 and
- G70.7+1.2, which was reported as a SNR by Reich et al.
(1985), but this has not been confirmed by later observations (see Green 1986;
de Muizon et al. 1988; Becker & Fesen 1988; Caswell 1988; Bally et al. 1989;
Phillips, Onello & Kulkarni 1993; Onello et al. 1995; Cameron & Kulkarni
- G81.6+1.0 a possible SNR in W75 reported by Ward-Thompson &
Robson (1991). From the published data (see the observations in Wendker, Higgs
& Landecker 1991) it was noted in Version IV of the catalogue that this is
thermal source not a SNR, because of its thermal radio spectrum, and high
infrared-to-radio emission (see also the subsequent discussion by Wendker
et al. 1993).
- Green & Gull (1984) suggested G227.1+1.0 as a very young
SNR, but subsequent observations (Channan et al. 1986; Green & Gull 1986) have
shown that this is most likely an extragalactic source, not an SNR.
- A candidate SNR, G274.7−2.8, identified by Helfand &
Channan (1989), has been shown not to be a SNR by Caswell & Stewart (1991).
- G159.6−18.5, was suggested as a SN by Pauls & Schwartz
(1989), from IRAS and other observations, but is probably an HII region (see
Andersson et al. 2000).
- G25.5+0.2, which was reported as a very young SNR by Cowan
et al. (1989), although this identification was not certain (see White &
Becker 1990; Green 1990; Zijlstra 1991). Sramek et al. (1992) report the
detection of recombination lines from this source (also see Subrahmanyan et al.
1993). Becklin et al. (1994) identify G25.5+0.2 as a ring nebula around a
luminous blue star. See also Clark, Steele & Langer (2000), and Phillips &
Ramos-Larios (2008) who identified G25.5+0.2 as a possible symbiotic outflow.
- Several of the possible SNRs listed by Gorham (1990) –
following up SNR candidates suggested by Kassim (1988) – have been shown not
to be SNRs by Gorham, Kulkarni & Prince (1993).
- G203.2−12.3, a optical ring about 3 arcmin in diameter, was
reported as a possible SNR by Winkler & Reipurth (1992), but was shown to be a
Herbig–Haro object (HH 311) by Reipurth, Bally & Devine (1997).
- G359.87+0.18 was reported as a possible young SNR near the
Galactic Centre by Yusef-Zadeh, Cotton & Reynolds (1998), but was shown to be
a radio galaxy by Lazio et al. (1999).
- G104.7+2.8, a possible SNR suggested by Green & Joncas
(1994), which instead appears to be an HII region, based on the improved
observations by Kothes et al. (2006).
- G106.6+2.9, a small remnant proposed by Halpern et al.
(2001), is incorporated into the larger catalogued remnant G106.3+2.7.
- Leahy, Tian & Wang (2008) proposed that a large radio shell,
G53.9+0.2, as a possible SNR. As noted above, this feature was included, as
G53.9+0.3 (part of HC40), in Version I of the catalogue, but was subsequently
removed, following the discussions of Caswell (1985) who concluded is was a
thermal source (see also Velusamy, Goss & Arnal 1986) – results which Leahy
et al. ignored.
The following remnants were added to Version III of the catalogue:
G4.2−3.5, G5.2−2.6, G6.1+1.2, G8.7−5.0,
G13.5+0.2, G15.1−1.6, G16.7+0.1, G17.4−2.3,
G17.8−2.6, G30.7−2.0, G36.6+2.6, G43.9+1.6,
G59.8+1.2, G65.1+0.6, G68.6−1.2, G69.7+1.0,
G279.0+1.1, G284.3−1.8 (=MSH 10−53), G358.4−1.9 and
G359.0−0.9 (although, as noted above, G358.4−1.9 was subsequently
The following remnants were added to Version IV of the catalogue:
G59.5+0.1, G67.7+1.8, G84.9+0.5, G156.2+5.7,
G318.9+0.4, G322.5−0.1, G343.1−2.3 and G348.5−0.0
(although, as noted above, G84.9+0.5 was subequently removed).
The following remnants were added to 1995 July version of the catalogue:
G1.0−0.1, G1.4−0.1, G3.7−0.2, G3.8+0.3,
G28.8+1.5, G76.9+1.0, G272.2−3.2, G341.2+0.9,
G354.1+0.1, G355.6−0.0, G356.3−0.3, G356.3−1.5 and
The following remnants were added to the 1996 August version of the catalogue:
G13.3−1.3, G286.5−1.2, G289.7−0.3, G294.1−0.0,
G299.2−2.9, G299.6−0.5, G301.4−1.0, G308.1−0.7,
G310.6−0.3, G310.8−0.4, G315.9−0.0, G317.3−0.2,
G318.2+0.1, G320.6−1.6, G321.9−1.1, G327.4+1.0,
G329.7+0.4, G342.1+0.9, G343.1−0.7, G345.7−0.2,
G349.2−0.1, G351.7+0.8, G351.9−0.9 and
The following remnants were added to the 1998 September version of the
catalogue: G0.3+0.0, G32.1−0.9, G55.0+0.3,
G63.7+1.1 and G182.4+4.3.
The following remnants were added to the 2000 August version of the catalogue:
G7.0−0.1, G16.2−2.7, G29.6+0.1, G266.2−1.2 and
The following remnants were added to the 2001 December version of the
catalogue: G4.8+6.2, G28.6−0.1, G85.4+0.7,
G85.9−0.6, G106.3+2.7, G292.2−0.5, G343.0−6.0,
G353.9−2.0, G356.2+4.5 and G358.0+3.8.
G312.5−3.0 was added to the 2004 January version of the catalogue.
The following remnants were added to the 2006 April version of the catalogue:
G5.5+0.3, G6.1+0.5, G6.5−0.4, G7.2+0.2,
G8.3−0.0, G8.9+0.4, G9.7−0.0, G9.9−0.8,
G10.5−0.0, G11.0−0.0, G11.1−0.7, G11.1−1.0,
G11.1+0.1, G11.8−0.2, G12.2+0.3, G12.5+0.2,
G12.7−0.0, G12.8−0.0, G14.1−0.1, G14.3+0.1,
G15.4+0.1, G16.0−0.5, G16.4−0.5, G17.0−0.0,
G17.4−0.1, G18.1−0.1, G18.6−0.2, G19.1+0.2,
G20.4+0.1, G21.0−0.4, G21.5−0.1, G32.4+0.1,
G96.0+2.0, G113.0+0.2 and G337.2+0.1.
The following remnants have been added to this version of the catalogue.
The following are possible or probable SNRs for which further
observations are required to confirm their nature or parameters, or for which
observations are not yet in the published literature.
- G83.0−0.3, which had been suggested as a SNR by Taylor,
Wallace & Goss (1992), and is now included in the catalogue following improved
observations by Kothes et al. (2006) which confirm its nature.
- G108.2−0.6 identified by Tian, Leahy & Foster (2007).
- G315.1+2.7 and G332.5−5.6 – which had been
suggested as SNR candidates by Duncan et al. (1995, 1997) – have been
confirmed as SNRs by further observations reported by Stupar, Parker &
Filipović (2007) and Reynoso & Green (2007) respectively.
- G327.2−0.1 a shell remnant found around the magnetar 1E
1547.0−5408, see Gelfand & Gaensler (2007).
- G350.1−0.3 was listed in early versions of the
catalogue, but was removed (in Version III), as observations by Salter et al.
(1986) did not allow a clear identification of the nature of this source.
Recently Gaensler et al. (2008) have presented new observations of this source,
including HI absorption observations which indicate it is
Galactic, which – along with other observations, including its X-ray emission
– support an SNR identification. However, its structure at radio wavelengths
is rather different from other known remnants.
- G353.6−0.7 a shell remnant associated with HESS
J1731−347 identified by Tian et al. (2008).
- Three sources – G355.4+0.7, G358.1+0.1,
G358.5−0.9 – which had been identified as possible SNRs by Gray
(1994b), have now been added to the catalogue, following further observations
by Roy & Bhatnagar (2006) which confirm their nature.
- G35.6−0.4 was listed in some early catalogues of Galactic
SNRs (e.g. Milne 1970), but was identified as a likely thermal source instead
by Caswell & Clark (1975). However, from VGPS and other data, this may in fact
be a SNR (Green 2009).
- A possible SNR near the Galactic centre reported by Ho et al.
(1985) from radio observations (see also Coil & Ho 2000; Lu, Wang & Lang
2003; Senda, Murakami & Koyama 2003, and references therein).
- Gosachinskiĭ (1985) reported evidence for non-thermal
radio emission, presumably from SNRs, associated with several bright, thermal
Galactic sources. Some of these sources have been included in the catalogue,
following improved observations (but also see Odegard 1986, who questions the
reliability of some of Gosachinskiĭ's results).
- G300.1+9.4, a possible SNR nearly 2° in diameter
reported by Dubner, Colomb & Giacani (1986).
- Routledge & Vaneldik (1988) report a possible faint radio
shell SNR nearly 2° in diameter, near the young pulsar PSR 1930+22 –
see also Gómez-González & del Romero (1983), who report a smaller (about
40 arcmin) possible SNR (G57.1+1.7) associated with this pulsar, and see
Caswell, Landecker & Feldman (1985) and Kovalenko (1989).
- Gorham (1990) lists many SNR candidates from the Clark Lake
30.9 MHz survey of the first quadrant, following Kassim (1988), although
several have been shown not to be SNRs by Gorham, Kulkarni & Prince (1993).
Gorham et al. do report a poorly defined possible remnant G41.4+1.2. See also
Aharonian et al. (2008) for observations of γ- and X-ray emission
possibly associated with one of the candidates (G44.6+0.1) listed by Gorham.
- Four possible remnants (G45.9−0.1, G71.6−0.5, G72.2−0.3
and G85.2−1.2) of the eleven reported by Taylor, Wallace & Goss (1992) from
a radio survey of part of the Galactic plane (see also Kothes et al. 2006).
(Five of the other possible SNRs reported by Taylor et al., are included in the
catalogue as G55.0+0.3, G59.5+0.1, G63.7+1.1, G76.9+1.0 and
G83.0−0.2, following improved observations which have confirmed their
- G356.6+0.1, G357.1−0.2, G358.7+0.7, G359.2−1.1,
G3.1−0.6 and G4.2+0.0, which are among the possible SNRs listed by Gray
(1994b) from radio observations near the Galactic centre. See also Roy &
Pramesh Rao (2002) who present additional observations of G356.3−0.3,
G356.6+0.1, G357.1−0.2 and G3.1−0.6 which they consider as possible SNRs,
and Bhatnagar (2002) for additional observations of G4.2+0.0 which appears to
be a thermal source.
- Duncan et al. (1995) and Duncan et al. (1997) list several
large-scale (1.5 to 10 degree), and smaller, low radio surface-brightness
candidate SNRs from the Parkes 2.4-GHz survey of 270° < l <
360°. Several of these candidates have been confirmed as SNRs by
subsequent, improved observations, and are included in the catalogue. (See also
Camilo et al. 2004a, who detected a young pulsar near one of these candidate
SNRs, G309.8−2.6, and Russeil et al. 2005, who detected optical filaments
- Whiteoak & Green (1996), from their radio survey of much of
the southern Galactic plane, list several possible SNRs (G308.4−1.4,
G317.5+0.9, G319.9−0.7, G320.6−0.9, G322.7+0.1, G322.9−0.0,
G323.2−1.0, G324.1+0.1, G325.0−0.3, G331.8−0.0, G337.2+0.1,
G339.6−0.6, G345.1+0.2, G345.1−0.2, and G348.8+1.1). See also Schaudel
et al. (2002) and Hui & Becker (2007) for X-ray observations of G308.3−1.4
and G319.9−0.7 respectively.
- Several candidate SNRs reported by Combi & Romero (1998),
Combi, Romero & Arnal (1998), Combi, Romero & Benaglia (1998), Punsly et al.
(2000) and Combi et al. (2001).
- A possible SNR, near l=313°, which is close to an
unidentified Galactic plane γ-ray source (see Roberts et al. 1999), and
to a pulsar (Roberts, Romani & Johnston 2001). See also
Aharonian et al. (2006a).
- G359.07−0.02, a possible SNR noted by LaRosa et al. (2000).
- A possible SNR near G6.4−0.1 (=W28) noted by
Yusef-Zadeh et al. (2000).
- Gaensler et al. (2000), in a search for pulsar wind nebulae,
found a small shell of radio emission near PSR B1356−60 – which they
designate G311.28+1.09 – which may be a supernova remnant.
- A possible SNR, G328.6−0.0, noted by McClure-Griffiths
et al. (2001) in the test region of the Southern Galactic Plane Survey.
- G346.5−0.1, an arc of radio emission observed by Gaensler
et al. (2001), which is potentially part of a SNR, but requires further
observations to confirm its nature.
- Giacani et al. (2001) presented observations of a pulsar wind
nebula around PSR J1709−4428, which may be part of the catalogued remnant
G343.1−2.3, or may represent another object.
- Several possible SNRs reported by Trushkin (2001), which were
identified from Galactic radio surveys (one of which, G6.1+0.5,
is included in the catalogue, due to improved subsequent observations).
- Two possibles SNRs (G336.1−0.2 and G352.2−0.1) discussed
briefly by Manchester et al. (2002).
- G282.8−1.2, a possible young SNR noted by Misanovic, Cram &
- Three possible remnants – G41.5+0.4, G42.0−0.0 and
G43.5+0.6 – identified by Kaplan et al. (2002).
- Two faint SNR candidates shown in Reich (2002).
- A possible faint remnant, G213.0−0.6, noted by Reich, Zhang
& Fürst (2003), which is not well defined by current observations (this
incorporates one of the faint remnants which was proposed by Bonsignori-Facondi
& Tomasi 1979, see above).
- G107.5−1.5, a probable remnant identified at by Kothes
(2003), but the full extent of which is not well defined at present
(see also Kothes et al. 2006).
- Zhang (2003) identified four candidate SNRs from radio
surveys. One of these – called G41.9+0.04 by Zhang – is close to one of the
possible remnant by Kaplan et al. (2002), see above. A second – G74.8+0.63 –
which Zhang identified as a possible remnant partly on the basis of its
non-thermal radio spectrum, actually has a flat, thermal radio spectrum, an has
long been identified as an HII region (e.g. Weiler & Shaver 1978; Pineault
& Chastenay 1990). Another of the sources – G47.8+2.03 – also may have a
thermal radio spectrum, given its published 2.7-GHz flux density (Fürst
et al. 1990b).
- Brogan et al. (2006) identify 35 new SNRs in the region
4°.5 < l < 22°, |b| < 1°.25, of which the
31 which are classed as `I' or `II' (i.e. those thought to be very or fairly
confidently identified as SNRs) were included in the 2006 version of the
catalogue. Four other possible SNRs – labelled G5.71−0.08, G6.31+0.54,
G15.51−0.15 and G19.13+0.90 – which comprise Brogan et al.'s class `III',
are not included in the catalogue, as further observations are required to
confirm their nature and better define their parameters.
- Helfand et al. (2006) list many SNR candidates in the region
5° < l < 32°, |b| < 0°.8 from MAGPIS. Many of these
correspond to sources in Brogan et al., and several are included in the
catalogue, with the others requiring further observations.
- A likely shell SNR G64.5+0.9, noted by Tian & Leahy (2006),
see also Hurley-Walker et al. (2009).
- Martí et al. (2007), report extended radio emission near
the X-ray source KS 1741−293 near the Galactic centre which may be a SNR (see
also Cherepashchuk 1994).
- A poorly defined possible SNR, near l=151°,
b=3° has been reported by Kerton, Murphy & Patterson (2007).
- Roberts & Brogan (2008) propose a new SNR, G8.7−1.7, from
non-thermal radio emission near an pulsar wind nebula, although currently the
extent of the remnant is not well defined.
- A possible SNR overlapping G296.1−0.5, identified from
optical (and X-ray) observations by Hutchings, Crampton & Cowley (1981).
- Winkler et al. (1989) report a possible small (4 arcmin) SNR
within the Puppis A remnant, from optical observations. This has not been
detected at radio wavelengths (see Dubner et al. 1991).
- A possible SNR (G32.1+0.1) reported from optical
spectroscopy by Thompson, Djorgovski & de Carvalho (1991), following up radio
and infrared observations of Jones, Garwood & Dickey (1988), although this
appears to have a thermal radio spectrum.
- G75.5+2.4, a possible large (about 2°) old SNR in
Cygnus suggested by Nichols-Bohlin & Fesen (1993) from infra-red and optical
observations (see also Dewdney & Lozinskaya 1994; Marston 1996; Esipov et al.
1996; Kothes et al. 2006).
- A possible optical SNR (G247.8+4.9) noted by Weinberger
(1995), which may be Balmer dominated (see also Weinberger et al. 1998 and
Zanin & Kerber 2000).
- An optical shell around the Coalsack Nebula (near
l=300°, b=0°) identified by Walker & Zealey (1998). This
coincides with one of the large possible SNRs suggested by Duncan et al.
(1995), from radio observations.
- Two possible SNRs, G340.5+0.7 and G342.1+0.1,
identified by Walker, Zealey & Parker (2001) from filaments seen
in Hα survey observations.
- A probable SNR which was identified by Bally & Reipurth
(2001) – which they label as G110.3+11.3 – from optical filaments (and
which is also associated with a large HI and CO cavity, and soft X-ray
- A possible remnant, near l=70°, b=2° noted by
Mavromatakis & Strom (2002), for which Kothes et al. (2006) do not find any
- Optical filaments in Pegausus (Boumis et al. 2002) which
suggest one or more possible SNRs.
- A possible remnant identified from optical filaments to the NE
of the known SNR G116.5+1.1, as observed by Mavromatakis et al. (2005).
- A suggested small, young remnant observed by Spitzer
(Morris et al. 2006).
- Russell et al. (2007) report a small (about 7 arcmin in
extent) optical ring, which is very faint at radio wavelengths, which is just
to the NW of Cyg X-1, which may be a SNR if it is not associated with Cyg X-1
(see also Gallo et al. 2005).
- Stupar, Parker & Filipović (2008) report several SNRs
identified from Hα observations, several of which correspond to SNR
candidates first suggested by Duncan et al. (1995, 1997) from radio
observations. The full extent of most of these are not well defined, but two
are currently included in the main catalogue (G315.1+2.7, and
- H1538−32 a large X-ray source in Lupus, near l=307°,
b=+20° (Riegler, Agrawal & Gull 1980; see also Colomb, Dubner &
Giacani 1984; Gahm et al. 1990) which is a possible old SNR;
- G189.6+3.3, a faint, possible SNR overlapping
G189.1+3.0 (=IC443) identified by Asaoka & Aschenbach (1994) from
ROSAT X-ray observations.
- G117.7+0.6, a faint shell of soft X-ray emission near
G116.9+0.2 (=CTB 1), which contains a pulsar (Hailey & Craig 1995;
see also Craig, Hailey & Pisarski 1997, Esposito et al. 2008 and Kothes et al.
- A possible SNR identified in X-rays around the pulsar
B1828−13 (see Finley, Srinivasan & Park 1996).
- A possible, large SNR, G69.4+1.2, identified as an X-ray
shell by Yoshita, Miyata & Tsunemi (1999, 2000). See also Mavromatakis, Boumis
& Paleologou (2002) and Kothes et al. (2006).
- Possible SNRs identified in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey are
discussed briefly by Schaudel et al. (2002).
- G0.570−0.018 a small ring of X-ray emission near the
Galactic Centre, which has been proposed as a very young remnant by Senda,
Murakami & Koyama (2002). See also Senda, Murakami & Koyama (2003), who
identify other possible SNRs near the Galactic Centre from their X-ray
emission, Renaud et al. (2006) and Mori et al. (2008).
- Two probable SNRs (G25.5+0.0 and G26.6−0.1) identified by
Bamba et al. (2003) from their hard X-ray emission.
- Ueno et al. (2004) identify several candidate SNRs in the
first quadrant from the ASCA Galactic Plane Survey (see also Yamuguchi
et al. 2004). Two of these are included in the catalogue (as G28.6−0.1
and G32.4+0.1), as additional observations confirm their nature.
- A possible SNR identified from X-ray and γ-ray
observations (Malizia et al. 2005).
- Cui & Konopelko (2006) identify an extended X-ray source near
- An excess of Fe X-ray line emission in Sgr B, near
l=0°.61, b=0°.01 may be from a SNR (Koyama et al.
- Nobukawa et al. (2008) report a region of X-ray emission,
G0.42−0.04, near the Galactic centre, which may be part of a SNR.
It should also be noted that:
(a) some large radio continuum and HI loops in the Galactic plane (e.g.
Berkhuijsen 1973) may be parts of very large, old SNRs, but they have not been
included in the catalogue (see also Combi et al. 1995; Maciejewski et al. 1996;
Kim & Koo 2000; Normandeau et al. 2000; Woermann, Gaylard & Otrupcek 2001;
Stil & Irwin 2001; Uyanıker & Kothes 2002; Olano, Meschin & Niemela
2006), also see Koo, Kang & Salter (2006) and Kang & Koo (2007) who identify
faint Galactic HI features at forbidden velocities as indicators of old,
otherwise undetectable SNRs;
(b) some large (> 10°) regions of X-ray emission that are indicative
of a SNR are not included in the catalogue (e.g. the Monogem ring, near
l=203°, b=+12°, see Nousek et al. 1981, Plucinsky et al. 1996,
Thorsett et al. 2003, Amenomori et al. 2005, and references therein, plus
Weinberger, Temporin & Stecklum 2006, for observations of optical filaments;
in the Gum Nebula near l=250°, b=0°, see Leahy, Nousek &
Garmire 1992, and also see Reynolds 1976, Dubner et al. 1992, Duncan et al.
1996, Reynoso & Dubner 1997, Heiles 1998; in Eridanus near l=200°,
b=−40°, see Naranan et al. 1976, Burrows et al. 1993, Snowden et al.
1995, Heiles 1998, Boumis et al. 2001, Ryu et al. 2006); a large approximately
24° diameter, X-ray and optical loop in Antlia, see McCullough, Fields
& Pavlidou 2002, Shinn et al. 2007);
(c) the distinction between filled-centre remnants and pulsar wind nebulae
(PWNe) is not clear, and isolated, generally faint, pulsar wind nebulae are
also not included in the catalogue. Kaspi, Roberts & Harding (2006) provide a
(see also the
Wind Nebula Catalog' online,
and Camilo et al. 2004b, Aharonian et al. 2005, Hessels et al. 2005, Aharonian
et al. 2006b, Gonzalez et al. 2006, Wang, Lu & Gotthelf 2006, Aharonian et al.
2007, Hinton et al. 2007, Bhattacharyya 2008, Gotthelf & Halpern 2008, Muno
et al. 2008).
- G287.8−0.5, which is associated with η Carinae, was
listed in Version I as a SNR, but was removed from the catalogue in Version II
as its parameters are uncertain (see Jones 1973; Retallack 1984; Tateyama,
Strauss & Kaufmann 1991; and the discussion in Version II).
- G359.2−0.8 (the `mouse'), near the Galactic centre, which
has been suggested as being analogous to the central region of G69.0+2.7
(=CTB 80) by Predehl & Kulkarni (1995), i.e. a pulsar powered nebula (see
also Camilo et al. 2002).
As noted in Versions II and IV of the catalogue, the following sources are
listed as SNRs, although, as discussed in each case, the identifications are
not certain: G5.4−1.2, G39.7−2.0 (=W50), G69.0+2.7
(=CTB 80), G318.9+0.4 and G357.7−0.1. The nature of
G76.9+1.0 (an unusual radio source similar to G65.7+1.2), and of
G354.1+0.1 (which may be similar to G357.7−0.1 (=MHS
17−39)) are also uncertain (see Landecker, Higgs & Wendker 1993 and
Frail, Goss & Whiteoak 1994).
There are also some objects that have been identified as SNRs and are listed in
the catalogue, although they have been barely resolved in the available
observations, or are faint, and have not been well separated from confusing
background or nearby thermal emission, and their identification as SNRs, or at
least their parameters remain uncertain.
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Dave Green/Cambridge, UK/D.A.Green@mrao.cam.ac.uk