A Catalogue of Galactic Supernova Remnants: Documentation
2017 June version
D. A. Green
19 J. J. Thomson Avenue
Cambridge CB3 0HE
Contents of this document.
This catalogue of Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) is an updated
version of those presented in detail in Green (1984, 1988) and in
summary form in Green (1991, 1996, 2004, 2009, 2014) – hereafter
Versions I, II, III, IV, V, VI and VII respectively – and on the
World-Wide-Web, in versions of 1995 July, 1996 August, 1998 September,
2000 August, 2001 December, 2004 January, 2006 April and 2009 March.
(Version IV, although published in 1996, was produced in 1993, and a
detailed version of this was made available on the World-Wide-Web in
1993 November. The summary data from the 2001 December version of the
catalogue was also published as an Appendix in Stephenson & Green
- The summary listings of all 295 SNRs.
- The detailed listings of all 295 SNRs.
- A list of other names for Galactic
- The abbreviations for journals/telescopes
used in the detailed listings.
- A frames interface to the catalogue.
- How to get a paper version of the
- A feedback comment form.
This, the 2017 June version of the catalogue, contains 295 SNRs (which is
one more than in the previous version; two remnants have been added, and
one object removed), with over fifteen hundred references in the
detailed listings, plus notes on many possible or probable remnants. For
each remnant in the catalogue the following parameters are given.
In the detailed listings, for each remnant, notes on a
variety of topics are given. First, it is noted if other Galactic
coordinates have at times been used to label it (usually before good
observations have revealed the full extent of the object), if the SNR is
thought to be the remnant of a historical SN, or if the nature of the
source as an SNR has been questioned (in which case an appropriate
reference is usually given later in the entry). Brief descriptions of
the remnant from the available radio, optical and X-ray observations as
applicable are then given, together with notes on available distance
determinations, and any point sources or pulsars in or near the object
(although they may not necessarily be related to the remnant). Finally,
appropriate published references to observations are given for each
remnant, complete with journal, volume, page, and a short description of
what information each paper contains (for radio observations these
include the telescopes used, the observing frequencies and resolutions,
together with any flux density determinations). These references are
not complete, but cover representative and recent observations of
the remnant – up to the end of 2016 in this version of the catalogue –
and they should themselves include references to earlier work.
- Galactic Coordinates of the source centroid,
quoted to the nearest tenth of a degree as is conventional. (Note: in
this catalogue additional leading zeros are not used.)
- Other Names that are commonly used for the
remnant. These are given in parentheses if the remnant is only a part of
the source. For some remnants, notably the Crab Nebula, not all common
names are given.
- Right Ascension and Declination of the
source centroid. The accuracy of the quoted values depends on the size
of the remnant; for small remnants they are to the nearest few seconds
of time and the nearest minute of arc respectively, whereas for larger
remnants they are rounded to coarser values, but are in every case
sufficient to specify a point within the boundary of the remnant. These
coordinates are usually deduced from radio maps rather than from X-ray
or optical observations, and are for J2000.0.
- Angular Size of the remnant, in arcmin, usually
taken from the highest resolution radio map available. The boundary of most
remnants approximates reasonably well to a circle or an ellipse. A single value
is quoted for the angular size of the more nearly circular remnants, which is
the diameter of a circle with an area equal to that of the remnant. For
elongated remnants the product of two values is quoted, and these are the major
and minor axes of the remnant boundary modelled as an ellipse. In a few cases
an ellipse is not a satisfactory description of the boundary of the object
(refer to the description of the individual object given in its catalogue
entry), although an angular size is still quoted for information. For
`filled-centre' remnants the size quoted is for the largest extent of the
observed radio emission, not, as at times has been used by others, the
half-width of the centrally brightened peak.
- Flux Density of the remnant at 1 GHz in jansky.
This is not a measured value, but is deduced from the observed
radio-frequency spectrum of the source. The frequency of 1 GHz is chosen
because flux density measurements at frequencies both above and below
this value are usually available. Note that some young remnants –
notably G111.7−2.1 (=Cassiopeia A) and G184.6−5.8
(=Crab Nebula) – show secular variations in their radio flux.
- Spectral Index of the integrated radio emission from the
α (here defined in the sense, S ∝
ν−α, where S is the
flux density at a frequency ν),
either a value that is quoted in the literature, or one deduced from the
available integrated flux densities of the remnant. For several SNRs a simple
power law is not adequate to describe their radio spectra, either because there
is evidence that the integrated spectrum is curved or the spectral index varies
across the face of the remnant. In these cases the spectral index is given as
`varies' (refer to the description of the remnant and appropriate references in
the detailed catalogue entry for more information). In some cases, for example
where the remnant is highly confused with thermal emission, the spectral index
is given as `?' since no value can be deduced with any confidence.
- Type of the SNR: `S' or `F' if the remnant shows a
`shell' or `filled-centre' structure, or `C' if it shows `composite' (or
`combination') radio structure with a combination of shell and filled-centre
characteristics; or `S?', `F?' or `C?', respectively, if there is some
uncertainty; or `?' in several cases where an object is conventionally regarded
as an SNR even though its nature is poorly known or not well-understood. Until
recently only a few remnants were classified as composite remnants, as
available observations were only able to identify the more obvious
pulsar-powered, flatter radio spectrum filled-centre components within shells.
However, in recent years improved observations – particularly in X-rays with
the Chandra satellite – have identified many faint, pulsar powered
nebulae in what until then had been identified as pure shell remnants. (Note:
the term `composite' has been used in a different sense, by some authors, to
describe SNRs with shell radio and centrally-brightened X-ray morphologies. An
alternative term used to describe such remnants is `mixed morphology', see Rho
& Petre 1998.)
The references do not generally include large observational surveys –
of particular interest in this respect are:
the Effelsberg 100-m survey at 2.7 GHz of the Galactic plane 358°
≤ l ≤ 240°, |b| ≤ 5° by Reich et al. (1990) and
Fürst et al. (1990a); reviews of the radio spectra of some SNRs by
Kassim (1989), Kovalenko, Pynzar' & Udal'tsov (1994) and Trushkin
(1998); the Parkes 64-m survey at 2.4 GHz of the Galactic plane
238° < l < 365°, |b| < 5° by Duncan et al.
(1995) and Duncan et al. (1997); the Molonglo Galactic plane survey at
843 MHz of 245° < l < 355°, |b| < 1.°5 by Green
et al. (1999); the survey of 345° < l < 255°, |b| <
5° at 8.35 and 14.35 GHz by Langston et al. (2000); Multi-Array
Galactic Plane Imaging Survey (MAGPIS), see White, Becker & Helfand
(2005) and Helfand et al. (2006); the VLA Galactic Plane Survey, see
Stil et al. (2006);
the survey of HI emission towards SNRs by Koo & Heiles (1991);
surveys of IRAS observations of SNRs and their immediate
surroundings by Arendt (1989) and by Saken, Fesen & Shull (1992);
various Spitzer surveys of inner galaxy (Reach et al. 2006; Carey
et al. 2009; Pinheiro Gonçalves et al. 2011); the catalogue by
Fesen & Hurford (1996) of UV/optical/infra-red lines identified in
references to the first Fermi SNR catalogue (Acero et al. 2016) are
included for the 30 `Classified Candidates' and 14 `Marginally
Classified Candidates' remnants listed in Table 1, but not for the other
remnants with non-detections.
Ferrand & Safi-Harb (2012), present a census of X-/γ-ray
observations of Galactic SNRs and pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe),
updates of which are available
The catalogue is available as a summary listing
of the parameters for each remnant, and as
detailed listings (with references) for each
object. Also see the list of
other names used for these SNRs, and
the list of abbreviations for journals,
proceedings and telescopes used in the detailed listings.
The following objects, which were listed in Version I of the
catalogue were removed because they were no longer thought to be
remnants, or were poorly observed (see Version II for references and
further details): G2.4+1.4 (see also Gray 1994a; Goss & Lozinskaya
1995; Polcaro et al. 1995), G41.9−4.1 (=CTB 73, PKS 1920+06),
G47.6+6.1 (=CTB 63), G53.9+0.3 (part of HC40), G93.4+1.8
(=NRAO 655), G123.2+2.9, G194.7+0.4 (the Origem Loop, but see
below for more recent work), G287.8−0.5 (see below), G322.3−1.2
(=Kes 24) and G343.0−6.0 (but see below). G358.4−1.9, which was
listed in Version IV of the catalogue, was removed, as following the
discussion of Gray (1994a), as it is not clear that this is a SNR.
G240.9−0.9, G299.0+0.2 and G328.0+0.3, which were listed in 1995
July version of the catalogue, were removed from the 1996 August
version, following the improved observations of Duncan et al. (1996) and
Whiteoak & Green (1996). For the 1998 September revision of the
catalogue G350.0−1.8 was incorporated into G350.0−2.0, and
G337.0−0.1 refers to a smaller remnant than that previously
catalogued with the same name. G112.0+1.2, G117.4+5.0, G152.2−1.2
and G211.7−1.1 – which were reported as SNRs by Bonsignori-Facondi &
Tomasi (1979) – were removed from the 2001 December version of the
catalogue, as the first three of these are not confirmed as SNRs from
the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey (Roland Kothes, private
communication). G10.0−0.3, which was regarded as a remnant – possibly
associated with a soft-gamma repeater – was removed from the 2004
January version of the catalogue, as it is now thought to be radio
nebula powered by a stellar wind (see Gaensler et al. 2001, Corbel &
Eikenberry 2004, and references therein). G166.2+2.5 (=OA 184) was
removed from the 2006 April version of the catalogue, as it was
identified as an HII region by Foster et al. (2006). G84.9+0.5 was
removed from Version VI of the catalogue, as it was identified as an
HII region by Foster et al. (2007; see also Kothes et al. 2006).
G16.8−1.1 was removed from the Version VII version of the catalogue
(Sun et al. 2011; Stupar & Parker 2011).
In this version of the catalogue G192.8−1.1 has been removed. Gao
et al. (2011) had shown this is not a SNR, and it was erroneously not
removed in the Version VII version of the catalogue (see also Kang, Koo
& Byun 2014).
The following objects, which have been reported as SNRs, but have not
been included in any of the versions of the SNR catalogue, have
subsequently been shown not to be SNRs.
Some entries in the catalogue have been renamed, due
to improved observations revealing a larger true extent for the object
(previously G5.3−1.0 is now G5.4−1.2;
G308.7+0.0 is now incorporated into
G308.8−0.1). G337.0−0.1 now refers to a small (1.5 arcmin)
remnant, rather than larger supposed remnant at this position (see Sarma
et al. 1997), and G350.0−2.0 now incorporates the previously
catalogued G350.0−1.8, based on the improved observations of Gaensler
The following remnants were added to Version II of the catalogue:
G0.9+0.1, G1.9+0.3, G5.9+3.1, G6.4+4.0,
G8.7−0.1, G18.9−1.1, G20.0−0.2,
G27.8+0.6, G30.7+1.0, G31.5−0.6, G36.6−0.7,
G42.8+0.6, G45.7−0.4, G54.1+0.3, G73.9+0.9,
G179.0+2.6, G312.4−0.4, G357.7+0.3 and
- G70.7+1.2, which was reported as a SNR by Reich
et al. (1985), but this has not been confirmed by later observations
(see Green 1986; de Muizon et al. 1988; Becker & Fesen 1988; Caswell
1988; Bally et al. 1989; Phillips, Onello & Kulkarni 1993; Onello
et al. 1995; Cameron & Kulkarni 2007).
- G81.6+1.0 a possible SNR in W75 reported by
Ward-Thompson & Robson (1991). From the published data (see the
observations in Wendker, Higgs & Landecker 1991) it was noted in
Version IV of the catalogue that this is thermal source not a SNR,
because of its thermal radio spectrum, and high infrared-to-radio
emission (see also the subsequent discussion by Wendker et al. 1993).
- Green & Gull (1984) suggested G227.1+1.0 as a very
young SNR, but subsequent observations (Channan et al. 1986; Green &
Gull 1986) have shown that this is most likely an extragalactic source,
not an SNR.
- A candidate SNR, G274.7−2.8, identified by Helfand &
Channan (1989), has been shown not to be a SNR by Caswell & Stewart
- G159.6−18.5, was suggested as a SN by Pauls &
Schwartz (1989), from IRAS and other observations, but is probably an
HII region (see Andersson et al. 2000).
- G25.5+0.2, which was reported as a very young SNR by
Cowan et al. (1989), although this identification was not certain (see
White & Becker 1990; Green 1990; Zijlstra 1991). Sramek et al. (1992)
report the detection of recombination lines from this source (also see
Subrahmanyan et al. 1993). Becklin et al. (1994) identify G25.5+0.2 as
a ring nebula around a luminous blue star. See also Clark, Steele &
Langer (2000), and Phillips & Ramos-Larios (2008) who identified
G25.5+0.2 as a possible symbiotic outflow.
- Several of the possible SNRs listed by Gorham (1990) –
following up SNR candidates suggested by Kassim (1988) – have been
shown not to be SNRs by Gorham, Kulkarni & Prince (1993).
- G203.2−12.3, a optical ring about 3 arcmin in
diameter, was reported as a possible SNR by Winkler & Reipurth (1992),
but was shown to be a Herbig–Haro object (HH 311) by Reipurth, Bally &
- G247.8+4.9 was noted as a possible optical SNR by
Weinberger (1995), but is listed as a probable planetary nebula (PN) in
the MASH PN catalogue (see Parker et al. 2006).
- G359.87+0.18 was reported as a possible young SNR
near the Galactic Centre by Yusef-Zadeh, Cotton & Reynolds (1998), but
was shown to be a radio galaxy by Lazio et al. (1999).
- G104.7+2.8, a possible SNR suggested by Green &
Joncas (1994), which instead appears to be an HII region, based on the
improved observations by Kothes et al. (2006).
- G106.6+2.9, a small remnant proposed by Halpern
et al. (2001), is incorporated into the larger catalogued remnant
- Morris et al. (2006) suggested small remnant observed
by Spitzer, which has subsequently instead been identified as a
likely PN by Fesen & Milisavljevic (2010), see also Mizuno et al.
- Leahy, Tian & Wang (2008) proposed that a large radio
shell, G53.9+0.2, as a possible SNR. As noted above, this feature was
included, as G53.9+0.3 (part of HC40), in Version I of the catalogue,
but was subsequently removed, following the discussions of Caswell
(1985) who concluded is was a thermal source (see also Velusamy, Goss &
Arnal 1986) – results which Leahy et al. did not take into account.
See also Zychová & Ehlerova (2016).
The following remnants were added to Version III of the catalogue:
G4.2−3.5, G5.2−2.6, G6.1+1.2, G8.7−5.0,
G13.5+0.2, G15.1−1.6, G16.7+0.1, G17.4−2.3,
G17.8−2.6, G30.7−2.0, G36.6+2.6, G43.9+1.6,
G59.8+1.2, G65.1+0.6, G68.6−1.2, G69.7+1.0,
G279.0+1.1, G284.3−1.8 (=MSH 10−53), G358.4−1.9 and
G359.0−0.9 (although, as noted above, G358.4−1.9 was subsequently
The following remnants were added to Version IV of the catalogue:
G59.5+0.1, G67.7+1.8, G84.9+0.5, G156.2+5.7,
G318.9+0.4, G322.5−0.1, G343.1−2.3 and G348.5−0.0
(although, as noted above, G84.9+0.5 was subsequently removed).
The following remnants were added to 1995 July version of the catalogue:
G1.0−0.1, G1.4−0.1, G3.7−0.2, G3.8+0.3,
G28.8+1.5, G76.9+1.0, G272.2−3.2, G341.2+0.9,
G354.1+0.1, G355.6−0.0, G356.3−0.3, G356.3−1.5 and
The following remnants were added to the 1996 August version of the catalogue:
G13.3−1.3, G286.5−1.2, G289.7−0.3, G294.1−0.0,
G299.2−2.9, G299.6−0.5, G301.4−1.0, G308.1−0.7,
G310.6−0.3, G310.8−0.4, G315.9−0.0, G317.3−0.2,
G318.2+0.1, G320.6−1.6, G321.9−1.1, G327.4+1.0,
G329.7+0.4, G342.1+0.9, G343.1−0.7, G345.7−0.2,
G349.2−0.1, G351.7+0.8, G351.9−0.9 and
The following remnants were added to the 1998 September version of the
catalogue: G0.3+0.0, G32.1−0.9, G55.0+0.3,
G63.7+1.1 and G182.4+4.3.
The following remnants were added to the 2000 August version of the catalogue:
G7.0−0.1, G16.2−2.7, G29.6+0.1, G266.2−1.2 and
The following remnants were added to the 2001 December version of the
catalogue: G4.8+6.2, G28.6−0.1, G85.4+0.7,
G85.9−0.6, G106.3+2.7, G292.2−0.5, G343.0−6.0,
G353.9−2.0, G356.2+4.5 and G358.0+3.8.
G312.5−3.0 was added to Version V of the catalogue.
The following remnants were added to the 2006 April version of the catalogue:
G5.5+0.3, G6.1+0.5, G6.5−0.4, G7.2+0.2,
G8.3−0.0, G8.9+0.4, G9.7−0.0, G9.9−0.8,
G10.5−0.0, G11.0−0.0, G11.1−0.7, G11.1−1.0,
G11.1+0.1, G11.8−0.2, G12.2+0.3, G12.5+0.2,
G12.7−0.0, G12.8−0.0, G14.1−0.1, G14.3+0.1,
G15.4+0.1, G16.0−0.5, G16.4−0.5, G17.0−0.0,
G17.4−0.1, G18.1−0.1, G18.6−0.2, G19.1+0.2,
G20.4+0.1, G21.0−0.4, G21.5−0.1, G32.4+0.1,
G96.0+2.0, G113.0+0.2 and G337.2+0.1.
The following remnants were added to Version VI of the catalogue:
G83.0−0.3, G108.2−0.6, G315.1+2.7,
G332.5−5.6, G327.2−0.1, G350.1−0.3,
G353.6−0.7, G355.4+0.7, G358.1+1.0 and
G358.5−0.9. Note that G358.1+1.0 was in Versions VI and
VII with the wrong name, G358.1+0.1, which has been corrected in this
The following remnants were added to Version VII of the catalogue:
G21.6−0.8, G25.1−2.3, G35.6−0.4, G38.7−1.3,
G41.5+0.4, G42.0−0.1, G64.5+0.9, G65.8−0.5,
G66.0−0.0, G67.6+0.9, G67.8+0.5, G152.4−2.1,
G159.6+7.3, G178.2−4.2, G190.9−2.2,
G213.0−0.6, G296.7−0.9, G306.3−0.9,
G308.4−1.4, G310.6−1.6 and G322.1+0.0.
The following two remnants have been added to this version of the
The following are possible or probable SNRs for which further
observations are required to confirm their nature or parameters.
- G351.0−5.4, identified by de Gasperin et al.
(2014) from radio and other observations.
- A new, very high latitude remnant, G70.0−21.5,
identified from optical observations by Fesen et al. (2015). Previously
Boumis et al. (2002) had noted optical filaments in this region, which
they suggested were indicative of one or more SNRs.
- A possible SNR near the Galactic centre reported by Ho et al.
(1985) from radio observations (see also Coil & Ho 2000; Lu, Wang & Lang
2003; Senda, Murakami & Koyama 2003, Zhang et al. 2014, and
- Gosachinskiĭ (1985) reported evidence for
non-thermal radio emission, presumably from SNRs, associated with
several bright, thermal Galactic sources. Some of these sources have
been included in the catalogue, following improved observations (but
also see Odegard 1986, who questions the reliability of some of
Gosachinskiĭ's results, and also suggest another possible SNR,
- G300.1+9.4, a possible SNR nearly 2° in diameter
reported by Dubner, Colomb & Giacani (1986).
- Routledge & Vaneldik (1988) report a possible faint radio
shell SNR nearly 2° in diameter, near the young pulsar PSR 1930+22 –
see also Gómez-González & del Romero (1983), who report a smaller (about
40 arcmin) possible SNR (G57.1+1.7) associated with this pulsar, and see
Caswell, Landecker & Feldman (1985) and Kovalenko (1989).
- Gorham (1990) lists many SNR candidates from the Clark Lake
30.9 MHz survey of the first quadrant, following Kassim (1988), although
several have been shown not to be SNRs by Gorham, Kulkarni & Prince (1993).
Gorham et al. do report a poorly defined possible remnant G41.4+1.2. See also
Aharonian et al. (2008a) for observations of γ- and X-ray emission
possibly associated with one of the candidates (G44.6+0.1) listed by Gorham.
- Four possible remnants (G45.9−0.1, G71.6−0.5, G72.2−0.3
and G85.2−1.2) of the eleven reported by Taylor, Wallace & Goss (1992) from
a radio survey of part of the Galactic plane (see also Kothes et al. 2006).
(Five of the other possible SNRs reported by Taylor et al., are included in the
catalogue as G55.0+0.3, G59.5+0.1, G63.7+1.1, G76.9+1.0 and
G83.0−0.2, following improved observations which have confirmed their
- G356.6+0.1, G357.1−0.2, G358.7+0.7, G359.2−1.1,
G3.1−0.6 and G4.2+0.0, which are among the possible SNRs listed by
Gray (1994b) from radio observations near the Galactic centre. See also
Roy & Pramesh Rao (2002) who present additional observations of
G356.6+0.1, G357.1−0.2 and G3.1−0.6 which they consider as
possible SNRs, and Bhatnagar (2002) for additional observations of
G4.2+0.0 which appears to be a thermal source.
- Duncan et al. (1995) and Duncan et al. (1997) list
several large-scale (1.5 to 10 degree), and smaller, low radio
surface-brightness candidate SNRs from the Parkes 2.4-GHz survey of
270° < l < 360°. Several of these candidates have been
confirmed as SNRs by subsequent, improved observations, and are included
in the catalogue. See also: Walker & Zealey (1998) for details of an
optical shell around the Coalsack Nebula (near l=300°,
b=0°) which overlaps one of these candidates; Camilo et al.
(2004), Chang et al. (2012) and Danienko et al. (2012) for further
observations of another, G309.8−2.6, which is near a young pulsar; and
Russeil et al. (2005), who detected optical filaments from a third.
- Whiteoak & Green (1996), from their radio survey of
much of the southern Galactic plane, list many possible SNRs, several of
which have been included in the catalogue, following improved
observations, while most (G317.5+0.9, G319.9−0.7, G320.6−0.9,
G322.7+0.1, G322.9−0.0, G323.2−1.0, G324.1+0.1, G325.0−0.3,
G331.8−0.0, G337.2+0.1, G339.6−0.6, G345.1+0.2, G345.1−0.2,
and G348.8+1.1) have not. See also Hui & Becker (2007) for X-ray
observations of G319.9−0.7.
- Several candidate SNRs reported by Combi & Romero (1998),
Combi, Romero & Arnal (1998), Combi, Romero & Benaglia (1998), Punsly et al.
(2000) and Combi et al. (2001).
- A possible SNR, near l=313°, which is close to an
unidentified Galactic plane γ-ray source (see Roberts et al. 1999), and
to a pulsar (Roberts, Romani & Johnston 2001). See also
Aharonian et al. (2006).
- G359.07−0.02, a possible SNR noted by LaRosa et al. (2000),
see also Nakashima et al. (2010).
- A possible SNRs near G6.4−0.1 (=W28) noted by
Yusef-Zadeh et al. (2000). (A second possible remnant noted by
Yusef-Zadeh et al. has been included in the catalogue, as
G6.5−0.4, following the improved observations of it
by Brogan et al. 2006).
- Gaensler et al. (2000), in a search for pulsar wind nebulae,
found a small shell of radio emission near PSR B1356−60 – which they
designate G311.28+1.09 – which may be a supernova remnant.
- A possible SNR, G328.6−0.0, noted by McClure-Griffiths
et al. (2001) in the test region of the Southern Galactic Plane Survey.
- G346.5−0.1, an arc of radio emission observed by Gaensler
et al. (2001), which is potentially part of a SNR, but requires further
observations to confirm its nature.
- Giacani et al. (2001) presented observations of a pulsar wind
nebula around PSR J1709−4428, which may be part of the catalogued remnant
G343.1−2.3, or may represent another object.
- Several possible SNRs reported by Trushkin (2001), which were
identified from Galactic radio surveys (one of which, G6.1+0.5,
is included in the catalogue, due to improved subsequent observations).
- Two possibles SNRs (G336.1−0.2 and G352.2−0.1) discussed
briefly by Manchester et al. (2002).
- G282.8−1.2, a possible young SNR noted by Misanovic, Cram &
- G43.5+0.6, one of three possible SNRs identified by
Kaplan et al. (2002); the other two are included in the catalogue as
subsequent observations have shown they have non-thermal radio spectra.
- Two candidate large SNRs (diameters of approximately
3° and 1.°6) are reported from radio surveys in the
Galactic anticentre by Reich (2002), although their coordinates are not
given. See also Soberski, Reich & Wielebinski (2005).
- G107.5−1.5, a probable remnant identified at by Kothes
(2003), but the full extent of which is not well defined at present
(see also Kothes et al. 2006; Jackson, Safi-Harb & Kothes 2014).
- Zhang (2003) identified four candidate SNRs from radio
surveys. One of these – called G41.9+0.04 by Zhang – overlaps
G42.0−0.1. A second – G74.8+0.63 – which Zhang identified as a
possible remnant partly on the basis of its non-thermal radio spectrum,
actually has a flat, thermal radio spectrum, an has long been identified
as an HII region (e.g. Weiler & Shaver 1978; Pineault & Chastenay
1990). Another of the sources – G47.8+2.03 – also may have a thermal
radio spectrum, given its published 2.7-GHz flux density (Fürst et al.
- Brogan et al. (2006) identify 35 new SNRs in the region
4.°5 < l < 22°, |b| < 1.°25, of which the
31 which are classed as `I' or `II' (i.e. those thought to be very or fairly
confidently identified as SNRs) were included in the 2006 version of the
catalogue. Four other possible SNRs – labelled G5.71−0.08, G6.31+0.54,
G15.51−0.15 and G19.13+0.90 – which comprise Brogan et al.'s class `III',
are not included in the catalogue, as further observations are required to
confirm their nature and better define their parameters (see
also Aharonian et al. 2008b and Hewitt & Yusef-Zadeh et al. 2009).
- Helfand et al. (2006) list many SNR candidates in the region
5° < l < 32°, |b| < 0.°8 from MAGPIS. Many of these
correspond to sources in Brogan et al., and several are included in the
catalogue, with the others requiring further observations. One of these
candidates, G29.07+0.45, is known planetary nebula (Abell 1955, 1966; see also
Todt et al. 2013, Frew et al. 2014). See also Johanson & Kerton (2009).
- Martí et al. (2007), report extended radio emission near
the X-ray source KS 1741−295 near the Galactic centre which may be a SNR (see
also Cherepashchuk 1994).
- A poorly defined possible SNR, near l=151°,
b=3° has been reported by Kerton, Murphy & Patterson (2007).
- Roberts & Brogan (2008) propose a new SNR, G7.5−1.7, from
non-thermal radio emission near an pulsar wind nebula, although currently the
extent of the remnant is not well defined.
- Anderson et al. (2012) report extended radio emission
near a magnetar which may be a SNR designated G333.9+0.0 (see also Kijak
et al. 2013).
- G354.4+0.0 a possible small remnant reported by
Roy & Pal (2013) from radio observations.
- Five candidate remnants, G108.5+11.0, G128.5+2.6,
G149.5+3.2, G150.8+3.8 and G160.1−1.1, are identified from radio
surveys by Gerbrandt et al. (2014). One of these, G150.8+3.8, is
part of larger candidate SNR G150.3+4.5 identified by
Gao & Han (2014).
- Sidorin et al. (2014) note that there is possibly
non-thermal radio emission near l=51.°0, b=0.°0), overlapping
GLIMPSE bubble N107, which may indicate a SNR.
- Kothes et al. (2014) report the discovery of a new
PWN, G141.2+5.0, which lies within an HI cavity, which might
be an indication of remnant. See also Reynolds & Borkowski (2016).
- Green, Reeves & Murphy (2014) list over
twenty candidate SNRs identified in the second epoch Molonglo
Galactic Plane Survey. Two of these, G296.7−0.9
and G308.4−1.4 were added in Version VII of the catalogue,
based on other available observations. Several of the others
are previously reported candidate SNRs (e.g. Whiteoak & Green 1996;
Duncan et al. 1997).
- A region of non-thermal radio emission, NGC 6334D (near
l=351.°6, b=0.°2) is suggested as a possible SNR by
Demetroullas et al. (2015). However, existing higher resolution
observations (e.g. the SGPS, Haverkorn et al. 2006) resolve this into
a double source, which makes the remnant identification unlikely. (Also
note the coordinates of some figures in Demetroullas et al. are in
- Bihr et al. (2016) present radio observations in the
regions l=14.°0−37.°9 and l=47.°1−51.°2, |b| ≤
1.°1, which includes many of the candidates in Helfand et al.
- A sample of `giant radio sources' identified in the
Northern VLA Sky Survey (NVSS, Condon et al. 1998) is presented by
Proctor (2016). One of these sources, NVGRC J205051.1+312728, is
labelled `SNR?', but is actually part of the Cygnus Loop
(=G74.0−8.5). Several other of these sources also correspond to
known SNRs, including other parts of the Cygnus Loop.
- Winkler et al. (1989) report a possible small (4 arcmin) SNR
within the Puppis A remnant, from optical observations. This has not been
detected at radio wavelengths (see Dubner et al. 1991).
- A possible SNR (G32.1+0.1) reported from optical
spectroscopy by Thompson, Djorgovski & de Carvalho (1991), following up radio
and infrared observations of Jones, Garwood & Dickey (1988), although this
appears to have a thermal radio spectrum.
- G75.5+2.4, a possible large (about 2°) old SNR in
Cygnus suggested by Nichols-Bohlin & Fesen (1993) from infra-red and optical
observations (see also Dewdney & Lozinskaya 1994; Marston 1996; Esipov et al.
1996; Kothes et al. 2006).
- Two possible SNRs, G340.5+0.7 and G342.1+0.1,
identified by Walker, Zealey & Parker (2001) from filaments seen
in Hα survey observations.
- A probable SNR which was identified by Bally & Reipurth
(2001) – which they label as G110.3+11.3 – from optical filaments (and
which is also associated with a large HI and CO cavity, and soft X-ray
enhancement). See also Rector & Schweiker (2013).
- A possible remnant, near l=70°, b=2° noted by
Mavromatakis & Strom (2002), for which Kothes et al. (2006) do not find any
- A possible remnant identified from optical filaments to the NE
of the known SNR G116.5+1.1, as observed by Mavromatakis et al. (2005).
- Russell et al. (2007) report a small (about 7 arcmin in
extent) optical ring, which is very faint at radio wavelengths, just
to the NW of Cyg X-1, which may be a SNR if it is not associated with Cyg X-1
(see also Gallo et al. 2005).
- Stupar, Parker & Filipović (2008) report several SNRs
identified from Hα observations, several of which correspond to SNR
candidates first suggested by Duncan et al. (1995, 1997) from radio
observations. The full extent of most of these are not well defined, but two
are currently included in the main catalogue (G315.1+2.7, and
- Mavromatakis et al. (2009) report a candidate SNR,
G70.5+1.9, from optical observations.
- Optical filaments indicating a possible new SNR,
G304.4−3.1 are presented by Stupar, Parker & Filipović (2010).
- Stupar, Parker & Filipović (2011) report a possible
new SNR, G310.5−0.8, identified from optical filaments and associated
- H1538−32 a large X-ray source in Lupus, near l=307°,
b=+20° (Riegler, Agrawal & Gull 1980; see also Colomb, Dubner &
Giacani 1984; Gahm et al. 1990) which is a possible old SNR.
- G189.6+3.3, a faint, possible SNR overlapping
G189.1+3.0 (=IC443) identified by Asaoka & Aschenbach (1994) from
ROSAT X-ray observations (see also Lee et al. 2008).
- G117.7+0.6, a faint shell of soft X-ray emission near
G116.9+0.2 (=CTB 1), which contains a pulsar (Hailey & Craig 1995;
see also Craig, Hailey & Pisarski 1997, Esposito et al. 2008 and Kothes et al.
- A possible SNR identified in X-rays around the pulsar
B1828−13 suggested by see Finley, Srinivasan & Park (1996), see also
Braun, Goss & Lyne (1986) and Pavlov, Kargaltsev & Brisken (2008).
- A possible, large SNR, G69.4+1.2, identified as an X-ray
shell by Yoshita, Miyata & Tsunemi (1999, 2000). See also Mavromatakis, Boumis
& Paleologou (2002) and Kothes et al. (2006).
- Schaudel et al. (2002) report 14 candidate SNRs
identified in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey, and provided images for 3
of these (all of which have been included in this version of the
catalogue – as G38.7−1.3, G296.7−0.9 and
G308.4−1.4 – following improved observations of them, see
- G0.570−0.018 a small ring of X-ray emission near the
Galactic Centre, which has been proposed as a very young remnant by Senda,
Murakami & Koyama (2002, 2003), see also Renaud et al. (2006).
- Senda et al. (2003) also
identify two other possible SNRs near the Galactic Centre from their X-ray
emission (see also Mori et al. 2008 for further observations of one of
- Several possible SNRs reported by Bamba et al. (2003)
and Ueno et al. (2005, 2006), two of which have been included in the
catalogue (as G28.6−0.1 and G32.4+0.1), as additional
observations confirm their nature. One of the proposed remnants is
called G11.0+0.0, but is larger than the currently catalogued
G11.0−0.0. The nature of a second, G25.5+0.0, has been
questioned by Kargaltsev et al. (2012), who also proposed another,
smaller possible SNR, G25.25+0.28, which corresponds to one of the
candidates listed by Helfand et al. (2006). For a third source,
G23.5+0.1, Kargalstev et al. prefer a pulsar wind nebula
interpretation (see also Yamauchi, Sumita & Bamba 2016).
- An excess of Fe X-ray line emission in Sgr B, near
l=0.°61, b=0.°01 may be from a SNR (Koyama et al. 2007).
- Nobukawa et al. (2008) report a region of X-ray
emission, G0.42−0.04, near the Galactic centre, which may be part of a
- An extended region of X-ray emission,
near l=356.°8, b=−1.°7 is reported as a possible SNR
by Tomsick et al. (2009).
- Henley & Shelton (2009) report a possible large
(~10°) SNR at high Galactic latitudes, from the ROSAT
- A candidate SNR in the Sagittarius C region, designated
G359.41−0.12, was identified in X-rays by Tsuru et al. (2009).
- Sawada et al. (2009) propose a possible SNR,
G1.2−0.0, from X-ray observations (see also Law, Yusef-Zadeh & Cotton
2008 for radio observations).
- Brief details a possible new SNR identifed from the
Swift X-ray Galactic Plane Survey are reported by Reynolds et al.
- Heard & Warwick (2013) report on X-ray emission which
may be the core of a SNR, which they designate G0.13−0.12.
- The TeV γ-ray source MGRO J2019+37 is
discussed by Saha & Bhattcharjee (2014) as either a PWN or SNR. (Note
that declination for the source given by Saha & Bhattcharjee is wrong.)
- XMM-Newton observations near the Galactic Centre (Ponti
et al. 2015) include several candidate SNRs.
- Nobukawa et al. (2015) present Suzaku observations
which indicate a likely SNR near l=26.°4, b=−0.°2.
It should also be noted:
(a) Some large radio continuum, HI or CO loops in the Galactic plane
(e.g. Berkhuijsen 1973) may be parts of very large, old SNRs, but they
have not been included in the catalogue.
See also Grenier et al. (1989), Combi et al. (1995), Maciejewski et al.
(1996), Kim & Koo (2000), Normandeau et al. (2000), Woermann, Gaylard
& Otrupcek (2001), Stil & Irwin (2001), Uyanıker & Kothes (2002),
Olano, Meschin & Niemela (2006), Borka (2007), Kang, Koo & Salter (2012),
Xiao & Zhu (2014), Cichowolski et al. (2014), Sallmen et al. (2015).
Gao & Han (2013) discuss the nature of the Origem Loop – a large
radio loop – which has at times been regarded as a remnant. Also Koo,
Kang & Salter (2006) and Kang & Koo (2007) identify faint Galactic
HI features at forbidden velocities as indicators of old, otherwise
(b) Some large (> 10°) regions of X-ray emission that are
indicative of a SNR are not included in the catalogue;
e.g. the Monogem ring, near l=203°, b=+12° (see Nousek
et al. 1981, Plucinsky et al. 1996, Thorsett et al. 2003, Amenomori
et al. 2005, Plucinsky 2009, and references therein, plus Weinberger,
Temporin & Stecklum 2006, for observations of optical filaments);
in the Gum Nebula near l=250°, b=0° (see Leahy, Nousek
& Garmire 1992, and also see Reynolds 1976, Dubner et al. 1992, Duncan
et al. 1996, Reynoso & Dubner 1997, Heiles 1998, Pagani et al. 2012,
Purcell et al. 2015);
in Eridanus near l=200°, b=−40° (see Naranan et al.
1976, Burrows et al. 1993, Snowden et al. 1995, Heiles 1998, Boumis
et al. 2001, Ryu et al. 2006);
a large approximately 24° diameter, X-ray and optical loop in
Antlia (see McCullough, Fields & Pavlidou 2002, Shinn et al. 2007).
(c) The distinction between filled-centre remnants and pulsar wind nebulae
(PWNe) is not clear, and isolated, generally faint, pulsar wind nebulae are
also not included in the catalogue. See the catalogue of PWNe by
Kaspi, Roberts & Harding (2006)
(also see `Pulsar Wind Nebula Catalog' online),
and the high-energy SNR and PWNe catalogue noted
- G287.8−0.5, which is associated with η Carinae, was
listed in Version I as a SNR, but was removed from the catalogue in Version II
as its parameters are uncertain (see Jones 1973; Retallack 1984; Tateyama,
Strauss & Kaufmann 1991; and the discussion in Version II).
- G359.2−0.8 (the `mouse'), near the Galactic centre, which
has been suggested as being analogous to the central region of G69.0+2.7
(=CTB 80) by Predehl & Kulkarni (1995), i.e. a pulsar powered nebula (see
also Camilo et al. 2002).
As noted in Versions II and IV of the catalogue, the following sources
are listed as SNRs, although, as discussed in each case, the
identifications are not certain: G5.4−1.2, G39.7−2.0
(=W50), G69.0+2.7 (=CTB 80), G318.9+0.4 and
G357.7−0.1. The nature of G76.9+1.0 (an unusual radio
source similar to G65.7+1.2), and of G354.1+0.1 (which may
be similar to G357.7−0.1 (=MSH 17−39)) are also
uncertain (see Landecker, Higgs & Wendker 1993 and Frail, Goss &
Whiteoak 1994). Also, Pinheiro Gonçalves et al. (2011) suggest that
G23.6+0.3, and possibly G14.3+0.1 may be HII regions,
rather than SNRs.
There are also some objects that have been identified as SNRs and are listed in
the catalogue, although they have been barely resolved in the available
observations, or are faint, and have not been well separated from confusing
background or nearby thermal emission, and their identification as SNRs, or at
least their parameters remain uncertain.
This research has made use of NASA's Astrophysics Data System
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