Note: this is an
archived version which has been superseded. The current SNR
catalogue is at
A Catalogue of Galactic Supernova Remnants
2001 December version
Mullard Radio Astronomy Observatory
Cambridge CB3 0HE
Contents of this document.
- The summary listings of all 231 SNRs.
- The detailed listings of all 231 SNRs.
- A list of other names for Galactic
- The abbreviations for journals/telescopes
used in the detailed listings.
- A frames interface to the catalogue.
- How to get a paper version of the
- A feedback comment form.
This catalogue of Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) is an updated version of
those presented in detail in Green (1984, 1988), in summary form in Green
(1991, 1996) - hereafter Versions I, II, III and IV respectively - and on
the World-Wide-Web (versions of 1995 July, 1996 August, 1998 September and 2000
August). (Note that Version IV, although published in 1996, was produced in
This, the 2001 December version of the catalogue, contains 231 SNRs (which is
six more than in the previous, 2000 August, version: ten new remnants have been
added, and four entries removed), with about thousand references in the
detailed listings, plus notes on several dozen possible or probable
For each remnant in the catalogue the following parameters are given.
In the detailed listings, for each remnant, notes on a
variety of topics are given. First, it is noted if other Galactic coordinates
have at times been used to label it (usually before good observations have
revealed the full extent of the object), if the SNR is thought to be the
remnant of a historical SN, or if the nature of the source as an SNR has been
questioned (in which case an appropriate reference is usually given later in
the entry). Brief descriptions of the remnant from the available radio, optical
and X-ray observations as applicable are then given, together with notes on
available distance determinations, and any point sources or pulsars in the
field of the object (although they may not necessarily be related to the
remnant). Finally, appropriate references to observations are given for each
remnant, complete with journal, volume, page, and a short description of what
information each paper contains (for radio observations these include the
telescopes used, the observing frequencies and resolutions, together with any
flux density determinations). These references are not complete, but
cover representative and recent observations of the remnant, and they should
themselves include references to earlier work. The references do not generally
include large observational surveys - of particular interest in this respect
are: the Effelsberg 100-m survey at 2.7 GHz of the Galactic plane 358°
< l < 240°, |b| < 5° by Reich et al. (1990) and Fürst
et al. (1990); reviews of the radio spectra of some SNRs by Kassim (1989),
Kovalenko, Pynzar' & Udal'tsov (1994) and Trushkin (1998); the Parkes 64-m
survey at 2.4 GHz of the Galactic plane 238° < l < 365°, |b|
< 5° by Duncan et al. (1995) and Duncan et al. (1997); the Molonglo
Galactic plane survey at 843 MHz of 245° < l < 355°, |b| <
1°.5 by Green et al. (1999); the survey of 345° < l <
255°, |b|<5° at 8.35 and 14.35 GHz by Langston et al. (2000);
reviews of Einstein X-ray imaging and spectroscopic observations of
Galactic SNRs by Seward (1990) and Lum et al. (1992) respectively; surveys of
IRAS observations of SNRs and their immediate surroundings by Arendt
(1989) and by Saken, Fesen & Shull (1992); the survey of HI emission towards
SNRs by Koo & Heiles (1991); and the catalogue by Fesen & Hurford (1996) of
UV/optical/infra-red lines identified in SNRs.
- Galactic Coordinates of the source centroid, quoted to
the nearest tenth of a degree as is conventional. (Note: in this catalogue
additional leading zeros are not used.)
- Other Names that are commonly used for the remnant. These
are given in parentheses if the remnant is only a part of the source. For some
remnants, notably the Crab Nebula, not all common names are given.
- Right Ascension and Declination of the source
centroid. The accuracy of the quoted values depends on the size of the remnant;
for small remnants they are to the nearest few seconds of time and the nearest
minute of arc respectively, whereas for larger remnants they are rounded to
coarser values, but are in every case sufficient to specify a point within the
boundary of the remnant. These coordinates are almost always deduced from radio
maps rather than from X-ray or optical observations, and are for J2000.0.
- Angular Size of the remnant, in arcminutes, usually taken
from the highest resolution radio map available. The
boundary of most remnants approximates reasonably well to a circle or an
ellipse; a single value is quoted for the angular size of the more nearly
circular remnants, which is the diameter of a circle with an area equal to that
of the remnant, but for elongated remnants the product of two values is quoted,
and these are the major and minor axes of the remnant boundary modelled as an
ellipse. In a few cases an ellipse is not a satisfactory description of the
boundary of the object (refer to the description of the individual object given
in its catalogue entry), although an angular size is still quoted for
information. For `filled-centre' remnants the size quoted is for the largest
extent of the observed radio emission, not, as at times has been used by
others, the half-width of the centrally brightened peak.
- Flux Density of the remnant at 1 GHz in jansky. This is
not a measured value, but is deduced from the observed radio frequency
spectrum of the source. The frequency of 1 GHz is chosen because flux density
measurements at frequencies both above and below this value are usually
- Spectral Index of the integrated radio emission from the
either a value that is quoted in the literature, or one deduced from the
available integrated flux densities of the remnant. For several SNRs a simple
power law is not adequate to describe their radio spectra, either because there
is evidence that the integrated spectrum is curved or the spectral index
varies across the face of the remnant. In these cases the spectral index is
given as `varies' (refer to the description of the remnant and recent
references in the catalogue entry for more information). In some cases, for
example where the remnant is highly confused with thermal emission, the
spectral index is given as `?' since no value can be deduced with any
- Type of the SNR, either `S', `F' or `C' if the remnant
shows a `shell', `filled-centre' or `composite' (or `combination') radio
structure (or `S?', `F?' or `C?', respectively, if there is some uncertainty),
or `?' in several cases where an object is conventionally regarded as an SNR
even though its nature is poorly known or not well understood. (Note: the term
`composite' has been used in a different sense by some authors, to describe
SNRs with shell radio and centrally-brightened X-ray morphologies. An
alternative term used to describe such remnants is `mixed morphology',
see Rho & Petre 1998.)
The catalogue is available as a summary listing
of the parameters for each remnant, and as
detailed listings (with references) for each
object. Also see the list of
other names used for these SNRs, and
the list of abbreviations for journals,
proceedings and telescopes used in the detailed listings.
The following objects, which were listed in Version I of the
catalogue were removed because they were no longer thought to be remnants, or
were poorly observed (see Version II for references and further details):
G2.4+1.4 (see also Gray 1994a; Goss & Lozinskaya 1995; Polcaro et al. 1995),
G41.9-4.1 (=CTB 73, PKS 1920+06), G47.6+6.1 (=CTB 63), G53.9+0.3
(part of HC40), G93.4+1.8 (=NRAO 655), G123.2+2.9, G194.7+0.4 (the
Origem Loop), G287.8-0.5 (see below), G322.3-1.2 (=Kes 24) and
G343.0-6.0 (but see below). G350.1-0.3, which was listed in Version II of
the catalogue, was removed as it is no longer thought to be a SNR (see
Version III for details). G358.4-1.9, which was listed in Version IV of the
catalogue, was removed, as following the discussion of Gray (1994a), as it is
not clear that this is a SNR. G240.9-0.9, G299.0+0.2 and G328.0+0.3,
which were listed in 1995 July version of the catalogue, were removed from the
1996 August version, following the improved observations of Duncan et al.
(1996) and Whiteoak & Green (1996). For the 1998 September revision of the
catalogue G350.0-1.8 was incorporated into G350.0-2.0, and G337.0-0.1
refers to a smaller remnant than that previously catalogued with the same
G112.0+1.2, G117.4+5.0, G152.2-1.2 and G211.7-1.1 -- which were
reported as SNRs by Bonsignori-Facondi & Tomasi (1979) -- have been removed
from this version of the catalogue, as the first three of these are not
confirmed as SNRs from the ongoing Canadian Galactic Plane Survey (Roland
Kothes, private communication).
The following objects, which have been reported as SNRs, but have not been
included in any of the versions of the SNR catalogue, have subsequently been
shown not to be SNRs.
Some entries in the catalogue have been renamed, due to
improved observations revealing a larger true extent for the object (previously
G5.3-1.0 is now G5.4-1.2; G193.3-1.5 is now G192.8-1.1; G308.7+0.0 is
now incorporated into G308.8-0.1). G337.0-0.1 now refers to a small (1.5
arcmin) remnant, rather than larger supposed remnant at this position (see
Sarma et al. 1997), and G350.0-2.0 now incorporates the previously catalogued
G350.0-1.8, based on the improved observations of Gaensler (1998).
The following remnants were added to Version II of the catalogue: G0.9+0.1,
G1.9+0.3, G5.9+3.1, G6.4+4.0, G8.7-0.1, G16.8-1.1, G18.9-1.1,
G20.0-0.2, G27.8+0.6, G30.7+1.0, G31.5-0.6, G36.6-0.7, G42.8+0.6,
G45.7-0.4, G54.1+0.3, G73.9+0.9, G179.0+2.6, G312.4-0.4, G357.7+0.3
- G70.7+1.2, which was reported as a SNR by Reich et al.
(1985), but this has not been confirmed by later observations (see Green 1986;
de Muizon et al. 1988; Becker & Fesen 1988; Caswell 1988; Bally et al. 1989;
Phillips, Onello & Kulkarni 1993; Onello et al. 1995).
- G81.6+1.0 a possible SNR in W75 reported by Ward-Thompson &
Robson (1991). From the published data (see the observations in Wendker, Higgs
& Landecker 1991) it was noted in Version IV of the catalogue that this is
thermal source not a SNR, because of its thermal radio spectrum, and high
infrared-to-radio emission (see also the subsequent discussion by Wendker
et al. 1993).
- Green & Gull (1984) suggested G227.1+1.0 as a very
young SNR, but subsequent observations (Channan et al. 1986; Green & Gull
1986) have shown that this is most likely an extragalactic source, not an SNR.
- A candidate SNR, G274.7-2.8, identified by Helfand & Channan
(1989), has been shown not to be a SNR by Caswell & Stewart (1991).
- G159.6-18.5, was suggested as a SN by Pauls & Schwartz
(1989), from IRAS and other observations, but is probably an
HII region (see Andersson et al. 2000).
- G25.5+0.2, which was reported as a very young SNR by Cowan
et al. (1989), although this identification was not certain (see White &
Becker 1990; Green 1990; Zijlstra 1991). Sramek et al. (1992) report the
detection of recombination lines from this source (also see Subrahmanyan et al.
1993). Becklin et al. (1994) identify G25.5+0.2 as a ring nebula around a
luminous blue star. See also Clark, Steele & Lanfer (2000), who identified a
bipolar shell around G25.5+0.2 with similarities to eta Carinae.
- Most of the possible SNRs listed by Gorham (1990) - following
up SNR candidates suggested by Kassim (1988) - have been shown not to be SNRs
by Gorham, Kulkarni & Prince (1993).
- G203.2-12.3, a optical ring about 3 arcmin in diameter, was
reported as a possible SNR by Winkler & Reipurth (1992), but was shown to be a
Herbig--Haro object (HH 311) by Reipurth, Bally & Devine (1997).
- G359.87+0.18 was reported as a possible young SNR near the
Galactic Centre by Yusef-Zadeh, Cotton & Reynolds (1998), but was shown to be
a radio galaxy by Lazio et al. (1999).
- G106.6+2.9, a small remnant proposed by Halpern et al.
(2001a), is incorporated into the larger catalogued remnant G106.3+2.7.
The following remnants were added to Version III of the catalogue: G4.2-3.5,
G5.2-2.6, G6.1+1.2, G8.7-5.0, G13.5+0.2, G15.1-1.6, G16.7+0.1,
G17.4-2.3, G17.8-2.6, G30.7-2.0, G36.6+2.6, G43.9+1.6, G59.8+1.2,
G65.1+0.6, G68.6-1.2, G69.7+1.0, G279.0+1.1, G284.3-1.8 (=MSH
10-53), G358.4-1.9 and G359.0-0.9.
The following remnants were added to Version IV of the catalogue: G59.5+0.1,
G67.7+1.8, G84.9+0.5, G156.2+5.7, G318.9+0.4, G322.5-0.1,
G343.1-2.3 and G348.5-0.0.
The following remnants were added to 1995 July version of the catalogue:
G1.0-0.1, G1.4-0.1, G3.7-0.2, G3.8+0.3, G28.8+1.5, G76.9+1.0,
G272.2-3.2, G341.2+0.9, G354.1+0.1, G355.6-0.0, G356.3-0.3,
G356.3-1.5 and G359.1+0.9.
The following remnants were added to the 1996 August version of the catalogue:
G13.3-1.3 G286.5-1.2, G289.7-0.3, G294.1-0.0, G299.2-2.9
G299.6-0.5, G301.4-1.0, G308.1-0.7, G310.6-0.3, G310.8-0.4,
G315.9-0.0, G317.3-0.2, G318.2+0.1, G320.6-1.6, G321.9-1.1,
G327.4+1.0, G329.7+0.4, G342.1+0.9, G343.1-0.7, G345.7-0.2,
G349.2-0.1, G351.7+0.8, G351.9-0.9 and G354.8-0.8.
The following remnants were added to the 1998 September version of the
catalogue: G0.3+0.0, G32.1-0.9, G55.0+0.3, G63.7+1.1 and G182.4+4.3.
The following remnants were added to the 2000 August version of the catalogue:
G7.0-0.1, G16.2-2.7, G29.6+0.1, G266.2-1.2 and G347.3-0.5.
The following remnants have been added to this version of the catalogue.
The following are possible or probable SNRs for which further
observations are required to confirm their nature or parameters, or for which
observations are not yet in the published literature.
- Three high latitude SNRs (G4.8+6.2, G356.2+4.5 and
G358.0+3.8) -- which were proposed as possible remnants by Duncan et al.
(1997) -- which were confirmed as remnants by Bhatnagar (2000), from radio
observations made with the GMRT. (Note that G4.8+6.2 was referred to as
G4.5+6.2 by Duncan et al. 1997)
- G28.6-0.1 -- which had previously been listed as a
possible SNR, based on the radio observations of Helfand et al. (1989) -- has
now been included in the catalogue, as X-ray observations by Bamba et al.
(2001) have confirmed its nature as a SNR.
- Two remnants, G85.4+0.7 and G85.9-0.6, identified from
radio observations from the ongoing Canadian Galactic Plane Survey by
Kothes et al. (2001).
- G106.3+2.7, a remnant identified from radio observations by
Pineault & Joncas (2000) -- this incorporates a smaller proposed remnant
(G106.6+2.9) that has been discussed by Halpern et al. (2001a,b) --
see also Kothes, Uyaniker & Pineault (2001).
- G292.2-0.5, around the young pulsar J1119-6127,
which was detected at radio wavelength by Crawford et al. (2001), and
in X-rays by Pivovaroff et al. (2001).
- G343.0-0.6 (=RCW 114)-- which had been listed in Version I
of the catalogue, but was removed as it was poorly defined by the available
observations -- has now been included in the catalogue, because of the improved
observations of Walker & Zealey (2001).
- A remnant, G353.9-2.0, identified in the NRAO VLA Sky
Survey radio data (see Condon et al. 1998) by Green (2001), who presented
improved radio observations of this nearly circular shell SNR.
- A possible SNR near the Galactic centre reported by Ho et al.
(1985) from radio observations.
- Gosachinskii (1985) reported evidence for non-thermal
radio emission, presumably from SNRs, associated with several bright, thermal
Galactic sources (also see Odegard 1986, who questions the reliability of some
of Gosachinskii's results).
- G300.1+9.4, a possible SNR nearly 2° in diameter
reported by Dubner, Colomb & Giacani (1986) from radio observations.
- Routledge & Vaneldik (1988) report a possible faint shell SNR
nearly 2° in diameter at radio wavelengths, near the young pulsar PSR
1930+22 -- see also Gómez-González & del Romero (1983), who report a
smaller (about 40 arcmin) possible SNR (G57.1+1.7) associated with this
pulsar, and see Caswell, Landecker & Feldman (1985) and Kovalenko (1989).
- Five possible remnants (G45.9-0.1, G71.6-0.5, G72.2-0.3,
G83.0-0.2 and G85.2-1.2) of the eleven reported by Taylor, Wallace & Goss
(1992) from a radio survey of part of the Galactic plane. (Three of the other
possible SNRs reported by Taylor et al., are included in the catalogue as
G55.0+0.3, G63.7+1.1 and G76.9+1.0.)
- A faint, poorly defined possible remnant G41.1+1.2 reported
by Gorham, Kulkarni & Prince (1993) from radio observations.
- G9.7-0.1, a possible SNR report by Frail, Kassim & Weiler
(1994) from radio observations.
- G355.4+0.7, G356.6+0.1, G357.1-0.2, G358.1+1.0,
G358.5-0.9, G358.7+0.7, G359.2-1.1, G3.1-0.6 and G4.2+0.0, which are
among the possible SNRs listed by Gray (1994b) from radio observations near the
- G104.7+2.8, a possible SNR reported by Green & Joncas (1994)
from radio observations. However, recent observations at 10.7 GHz (W. Reich,
private communication) cast doubt on this identification, as they do not
support a non-thermal radio spectrum for the source.
- G11.2-1.1, a possible SNR listed by Kovalenko, Pynzar' &
Udal'tsov (1994), based on unpublished radio studies (Trushkin 1988, preprint).
- Duncan et al. (1995) and Duncan et al. (1997) list several
large-scale (1.5 to 10 degree), and smaller, low radio surface-brightness
candidate SNRs from the Parkes 2.4-GHz survey of 270° < l <
360°. Several of these candidates have been confirmed as SNRs
by subsequent, improved observations, and are included in the catalogue.
- Whiteoak & Green (1996), from their radio survey of much of
the southern Galactic plane, list 16 possible SNRs (G308.4-1.4, G317.5+0.9,
G319.9-0.7, G320.6-0.9, G322.7+0.1, G322.9-0.0, G323.2-1.0,
G324.1+0.1, G325.0-0.3, G331.8-0.0, G337.2+0.1, G339.6-0.6,
G345.1+0.2, G345.1-0.2, G348.8+1.1 and G350.1-0.3).
- Several candidate SNRs reported by Combi & Romero (1998),
Combi, Romero & Arnal (1998), Combi, Romero & Benaglia (1998), Punsly
et al. (2000) and Combi et al. (2001).
- G359.09-0.02, a possible SNR noted by LaRosa et al. (2000).
- A possible SNR, G313.3+0.1, near an unidentified
Galactic plane gamma-ray source (see Roberts et al. 1999).
- A likely SNR, called G359.92-0.09, adjacent to
G0.0+0.0 (=Sgr A East) at the Galactic centre, see
Coil & Ho (2000), and references therein.
- A possible SNR, G328.6-0.0, noted by McClure-Griffiths
et al. (2001) in the test region of the Southern Galactic Plane Survey.
- G346.5-0.1, an arc of radio emission observed by Gaensler
et al. (2001), which is potentially part of a SNR, but requires further
observations to confirm its nature.
- Giacani et al. (2001) presented observations of a pulsar
wind nebula around PSR J1709-4428, which may be part of the catalogued
remnant G343.1-2.3, or may represent another object.
- A possible SNR overlapping G296.1-0.5, identified from
optical (and X-ray) observations by Hutchings, Crampton & Cowley (1981).
- A SNR (G260.4-3.3) about 4 arcmin in diameter within the
Puppis A remnant identified optically by Winkler et al. (1989). This has not
been detected at radio wavelengths (see Dubner et al. 1991).
- A possible SNR (G32.1+0.1) reported from optical spectroscopy
by Thompson, Djorgovski & de Carvalho (1991), following up radio and infrared
observations of Jones, Garwood & Dickey (1988).
- G75.5+2.4, a possible large (about 2°) old SNR in
Cygnus suggested by Nichols-Bohlin & Fesen (1993) from infra-red and optical
observations (see also Dewdney & Lozinskaya 1994; Marston 1996; Esipov et al.
- A possible optical SNR (G247.8+4.9) noted by Weinberger
(1995), which may be Balmer dominated (see also Weinberger et al. 1998 and
Zanin & Kerber 2000).
- An optical shell around the Coalsack Nebula (near
l=300°, b=0°) identified by Walker & Zealey (1998). This
coincides with one of the large possible SNRs suggested by Duncan et al.
(1995), from radio observations.
- H1538-32 a large X-ray source in Lupus, near l=307°,
b=+20° (Riegler, Agrawal & Gull 1980; see also Colomb, Dubner &
Giacani 1984; Gahm et al. 1990) which is a possible old SNR;
- The Monogem ring, near l=203°, b=+12°, is a
possible old SNR (see Nousek et al. 1981; Plucinsky et al. 1996; and references
- X-ray emission in the Gum Nebula near l=250°,
b=0° (Leahy, Nousek & Garmire 1992, see also Reynolds 1976, Dubner
et al. 1992, Duncan et al. 1996, Reynoso & Dubner 1997, Heiles 1998) which,
together with optical spectroscopy indicate the existence of a possible old
remnant in this region.
- An X-ray enhancement near l=200°, b=-40°,
which is possibly due to an old SNR in Eridanus (Naranan et al. 1976; see also
Burrows et al. 1993; Snowden et al. 1995; Heiles 1998, Boumis et al. 2001).
- G189.6+3.3, a faint, possible SNR overlapping G189.1+3.0
(=IC443) identified by Asaoka & Aschenbach (1994) from ROSAT X-ray
- G117.7+0.6, a faint shell of soft X-ray emission near CTB1
(=G116.9+0.2), which contains a pulsar (Hailey & Craig 1995; see
also Craig, Hailey & Pisarski 1997).
- A possible SNR identified in X-rays around the pulsar
B1828-13 (see Finley, Srinivasan & Park 1996).
- A possible, large SNR, G69.4+1.2, identified
as an X-ray shell by Yoshita, Miyata & Tsunemi (1999, 2000).
It should also be noted that some radio continuum and HI
loops in the Galactic plane (see, for example, Berkhuijsen 1973) may be parts
of very large, old SNRs, but they have not been included in the catalogue (see
also Combi et al. 1995; Maciejewski et al. 1996; Kim & Koo 2000; Normandeau
et al. 2000; Woermann, Gaylard & Otrupcek 2001), nor have pulsar wind nebulae
(see, for example, Gaensler et al. 1998).
As noted in Versions II and IV of the catalogue, the following sources are
listed as SNRs, although, as discussed in each case, the identifications are
not certain: G5.4-1.2, G39.7-2.0 (=W50), G65.7+1.2 (=DA 495),
G69.0+2.7 (=CTB 80), G318.9+0.4 and G357.7-0.1. The nature of
G76.9+1.0 (an unusual radio source similar to G65.7+1.2), of G354.1+0.1
(which appears may be similar to G357.7-0.1 (=MHS 17-39)) and
G10.0-0.3 (which has been associated with a soft gamma repeater) are also
uncertain (see Landecker, Higgs & Wendker 1993, Frail, Goss & Whiteoak 1994
and Gaensler et al. 2001 respectively).
- G287.8-0.5, which is associated with eta Carinae, was
listed in Version I as a SNR, but was removed from the catalogue in Version II
as its parameters are uncertain (see Jones 1973; Retallack 1984; Tateyama,
Strauss & Kaufmann 1991; and the discussion in Version II).
- G359.2-0.8 (the `mouse'), near the Galactic centre, which has
been suggested as being analogous to the central region of CTB 80
(=G69.0+2.7) by Predehl & Kulkarni (1995).
There are also some objects that have been identified as SNRs and are listed in
the catalogue, although they have been barely resolved in the available
observations, or are faint, and have not been well separated from confusing
background or nearby thermal emission, and their identification as SNRs, or at
least their parameters remain uncertain.
I am grateful to the many colleagues who have commented on previous version of
the catalogue, and have brought errors and omissions to my attention. No doubt
errors remain in this version, and I am always happy to receive feedback from
users of the catalogue. This research has made use of NASA's Astrophysics Data
System Bibliographic Services. I am also grateful for the hospitality of IUCAA
in Pune, India, during November and December 2001, when much of the revision of
the catalogue was done, and to the support provided by the The Cambridge
Society, Bombay Scholarship Fund for the visit.
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Dave Green/MRAO, Cambridge, UK/D.A.Green@mrao.cam.ac.uk